FinalReview - Anthropology 0052: Introduction to...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Anthropology 0052: Introduction to Archaeology Fall 2010 Final Review Sheet ARCHAEOLOGICAL THEMES AND METHODS Sociopolitical organization Elman Service typology: -“primitive social organization” Bands -hunter/gatherers, egalitarian, small Tribes -larger, farmers, pastoralists, egalitarian chiefdoms -chief who controls ppl in subordinate settlements (not born equal at birth) States -gov with an internally specialized and hierarchically organized decision making apparatus, great power division, large societies Sociopolitical complexity Scale -how many ppl within the society and individual settlements Political leadership - dominance, are they subordinate or not Social hierarchy -status and wealth differences Specialization -gender roles, social roles, special ranks, tasks, jobs in society Studying complexity archaeologically: Settlement patterns -show subsistence, scale, size, political dominance, and conflict, the permanence of settlements, site size hierarchy, population density Mortuary analysis -grave goods analysis shows status and wealth Dwellings -and middens also show status and wealth, good areas v bad areas Monuments and public works - suggestions about scale, leadership, cooperation, ect (who used them? Restricted access?) Planning -site layout shows planned settlements, evidence of leadership Evidence of specialization -crafts, writing abilities, styles of artifacts can show ethnicity Archaeology of gender -study how gender roles were constructed, represented, and carried out. Look at grave burials for physical differences Chiefly cycling -chiefdoms are inherently unstable and subject to collapse (hard to monopolize luxury goods, lots of competition for few positions of power, frequent warfare, commoners might become disenchanted with leaders) Leaders as benefactors v. parasites - chiefs were beneficial to society when they maintained religious knowledge and ceremonies, managed agriculture, balanced out parts of society, trade and redistribution of resources, and provided protection -Parasites-chiefs exploited society when they were only after their own interests, only tried to advance their own political agendas, trued to dominate and intimidate others States Characteristics of states 1st-generation v. secondary states - primary state development occurred in areas with environmental circumscription, secondary states developed from contact with already existing states. Theories of State Origins Early "Prime Mover" theories: Metallurgy / craft specialization -ability to craft metals (bronze) and create specialties made ppl more advanced in economy, more active trade, agriculture, and warfare (chariots)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Irrigation - wherever irrigation required substantial and centralized control, rulers monopolized political power and dominated the economy, expanded agricultural areas to support larger populations, increased trade, supported the economy (raised fields for potato) Population pressure - agricultural methods depend on the size of the population (bc of pressure to support
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 01/24/2011 for the course ANTH Anth 0582 taught by Professor Elizabetharkush during the Fall '10 term at Pittsburgh.

Page1 / 8

FinalReview - Anthropology 0052: Introduction to...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online