Chap10 review

Chap10 review - Equilibria...

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Equilibria The Equilibrium State & Equilibrium Constant (K) The Reaction Quotient (Q) and the Equilibrium Constant Expressing Equilibrium with Pressure Terms Relation between  Kc  &  Kp Reaction Direction: Comparing  Q  &  K How to Solve Equilibrium Problems Reaction Conditions and the Equilibrium State Le Chatelier’s Principle 01/25/11 1
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Equilibria Chapter 16 addressed one of the three central themes of  reaction chemistry - reaction rates and mechanisms This chapter addresses another of the three themes How much product forms under a given set of starting concentrations and conditions The Principles of Kinetics and Equilibrium apply to  different aspects of a reaction Kinetics applies to the “ Speed ” of a reaction Equilibrium applies to the “ Extent of the Reaction ”, the  concentrations of reactant and product present after  an “unlimited’ time, or once  no further change  in the  concentrations occurs This chapter will deal only with systems of gases and  pure liquids and solids (Solution Equilibria will be  01/25/11 2
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Equilibria Law of Chemical Equilibrium (Law of Mass Action) At a given temperature, a chemical system reaches a state in which a particular ratio of reactant and product  concentrations has a constant value For a particular system and temperature, the same  equilibrium state is attained regardless of how the  reaction is run – any combination of reactants & products  & catalysts will result in the same equilibrium mixture of  reactants & products As the reaction proceeds toward equilibrium, there is a  continual smooth change in the concentrations of  reactants and products The ratio of reactants and products  is continually  changing until equilibrium  is reached 01/25/11 3
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Equilibria The ratio of concentration terms for a given reaction   at a  given time   during the reaction is called the   “Reaction  Quotient.”   Referred to as a  mass-action expression The reaction quotient is written directly from the  balanced equation and is made up of product  concentration terms multiplied together and divided by  the reactant concentration terms multiplied together Each concentration term is raised to the power of the  stoichiometric coefficient For reactions involving gaseous reactants & products,  the concentration units are expressed as pressure units 01/25/11 4 c d a b [C] [D] Q = [A] [B] aA + bB = cC + dD
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Equilibria All  chemical systems (reactions) reach a point where the  concentrations of the reactants & products  “no longer  change” All chemical reactions are  reversible  and reach a state of 
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Chap10 review - Equilibria...

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