macromolecules

macromolecules - LIPIDS 1. Are lipids primarily non-polar...

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LIPIDS 1. Are lipids primarily non-polar or polar molecules? Lipids are amphipathic molecules (because they have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails), but are primarily non-polar because the hydrocarbon tails are so much larger than the hydrophilic heads. 2. What are lipids primarily used for? Why? Energy storage because lipids provide 9 calories/gram while proteins and carbohydrates only provide 4 calories/gram. 3. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? Why is one considered healthier? Saturated fats are those with fully hydrogenated hydrocarbon tails. These tails contain only single bonds and therefore do not have any “kinks” within them. Unsatured fats are not fully hydrogenated and have double bonds (kinks). Saturated fats can stack up well on top of each other, allowing them to form lots of hydrophobic interactions/Van der Waals forces, which then requires more energy to break apart. The kinks of unsaturated fats make them much easier to break apart. 4. Describe the general structures of the following types of lipids: Triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids Triglycerides: 1 glycerol covalently bonded to 3 fatty acids Phospholipids: 2 fatty acids + 1 glycerol + 1 phosphate group Steroids: 3 6 carbon rings covalently bound to 1 5 carbon ring CARBOHYDRATES 1. What is the primary function of carbohydrates? What are carbohydrates made up of? The primary function is to provide a rapid source of energy. Carbohydrates are made up of long chains of monosaccharides. 2. Why would eating a complex polysaccharide like cream of wheat be better for a long- term activity like an 8 hour study session?
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Complex polysaccharides need time to be digested before they can be readily absorbed by the body and used as a source of energy. Complex polysaccharides are good for activities with longer durations because they will provide a source of energy later on in contrast to simple sugars which
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2011 for the course LS 2 taught by Professor Pires during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.

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macromolecules - LIPIDS 1. Are lipids primarily non-polar...

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