Chapter 7 & 8 - Atomic Structure and Periodicity_Part5

Chapter 7 & 8 - Atomic Structure and...

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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTERS 7 & 8 - ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND PERIODICITY PAGE 21 OF 28 Example : Iron Example : Platinum Exceptions to Transition Metal Electron Configurations Consider the energy level diagram for orbitals The difference in energy between subshells is due to electron-electron repulsions Hydrogen has 1 electron and there is only an attractive force between the nucleus and the electron In atoms with more than 1 electron there are attractions with the nucleus for each electron and also repulsions between every electron The repulsion of outer-shell electrons by inner-shell electrons effect the atom the most Outer-shell electrons are pushed farther away from the nucleus They are held less tightly to the nucleus Part of the attraction of the nucleus for an outer electron is canceled We say the outer electrons are shielded from the nucleus by the inner electrons The actual nuclear charge actually felt by an electron = effective nuclear charge = Z eff Z eff = Z actual – Electron shielding How do this lead to energy differences in orbitals? Consider the following probability distributions of where an electron would live in the orbitals: The energy levels of different orbitals in a hydrogen atom depend only on the principal quantum number n The energy levels of orbitals in atoms with more than 1 electron depend both on n and l Notice the 3d and 4s are very close in energy, but the 3d is slightly higher in energy The same energy difference applies to 4d and 5s and 5d and 6s orbitals
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Chapter 7 & 8 - Atomic Structure and...

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