Chapter 7 &amp; 8 - Atomic Structure and Periodicity

# Chapter 7 &amp; 8 - Atomic Structure and Periodicity -...

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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTERS 7 & 8 - ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND PERIODICITY PAGE 1 OF 28 Quantum Mechanics Quantum mechanics = a branch of physics that devised to explore and describe the structure and behavior of atomic and subatomic (extraordinarily small) particles The use of mathematics is integral to Quantum Mechanics because on such tiny scales, a scientist can only calculate the probability that things will happen Scientists cannot directly observe atomic and subatomic behavior An atoms electrons determine many of its chemical and physical properties To understand an atoms properties, we have to understand how electrons exist within atoms Quantum Mechanical Model = A model that explains how electrons exist and behave in atoms Explains how electrons determine the chemical and physical properties of elements Why some elements are metals while others are nonmetals Why some elements gain 1 electron when forming an anion, while others gain 2 electrons Why some elements are very reactive while others are practically inert Periodic patterns that we see in the properties of the elements Prior to the development of quantum mechanics, the nature of light was thought to very different from the nature of subatomic particles As quantum mechanics developed, light was found to many characteristics in common with electrons Properties of Waves Waves are characterized by their length, height, and by the number of waves that pass through a certain point in one second Wavelength , ( λ ) lambda = a measure of the distance covered by a wave The distance from one wave peak to the next Units are meters (m), nanometers (nm), or centimeters (cm) Frequency , ( ν ) nu = the number of waves that pass through a particular point in one second Units are Hertz (Hz) 1 Hz = 1 cycle/s “cycle” may be left out though 1Hz = 1/s = 1 s -1 = Amplitude = the height of the wave = vertical distance from the midline of a wave to the peak or trough

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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTERS 7 & 8 - ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND PERIODICITY PAGE 2 OF 28 Electromagnetic Radiation There are many kinds of waves: water waves, sound waves, and light waves Maxwell proposed that visible light consisted of electromagnetic waves (1873 = 19 th Century) EM wave = has an electric field component and a magnetic field component The 2 components have the same wavelength, frequency, and speed, but they travel in perpendicular planes The significance of Maxwell’s theory is that it provi des a mathematical description of the general behavior of light His model describes how energy in the form of radiation can move through space as vibrating electric and magnetic fields Electromagnetic radiation = the emission and transmission of energy is the form of electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic energy or radiant energy make up the electromagnetic spectrum All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light (c)
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Chapter 7 &amp; 8 - Atomic Structure and Periodicity -...

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