Chapter 6 - Thermodynamics

# Chapter 6 - Thermodynamics - GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6...

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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6 – THERMODYNAMICS PAGE 1 OF 16 Chemistry = study of matter and energy Thermodynamics = the study of energy and its interconversions Energy = The capacity to supply heat or do work Work = a force acting over a distance Energy = Work = Force x Distance Energy can be exchanged between objects through collisions Kinetic energy = energy of motion or energy that is being transferred Thermal energy (heat) is kinetic Potential energy = energy that is stored in an object, or energy associated with the composition and position of the object Energy stored in the structure of a compound is potential Law of Conservation of Energy = 1 st Law of Thermodynamics = energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only be converted from one form to another; the total energy of an isolated system is constant Total Energy = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy Total Energy = E P + E KE

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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6 – THERMODYNAMICS PAGE 2 OF 16 Units of Energy Joule (J) = the amount of energy needed to move a 1 kg mass a distance of 1 meter K.E. = ½ mv 2 K.E. = 1 kg∙m 2 /s 2 = Joule calorie (cal) = the amount of energy needed to raise one gram of water by 1°C kcal = energy needed to raise 1000 g of water 1°C kilowatt-hour (kWh) = the amount of energy equal to the work done by a power of 1000 watts operating for one hour Energy Conversion Factors 1 calorie (cal) = 4.184 Joules (J) exact number 1000 calories (cal) = 1 Calorie (Cal) 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.60 x 10 6 Joules (J) Energy Flow and the Conservation of Energy We define the system = the material or process we are studying We define the surroundings = everything else in the universe The Law of the Conversion of Energy: Requires that the total energy change is the system and surroundings is conserved = 0 Energy universe = 0 = Energy system + Energy surroundings is the symbol that is used to mean change = final – initial Internal Energy (E) = the total amount of kinetic and potential energy a system has The change in the internal energy of a system only depends on the amount of energy in the system at the beginning and end = state function State function = a mathematical function whose value depends only on the initial and final conditions, not on the process used or path used E = E final – E initial E reaction = E products - E reactants
GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6 – THERMODYNAMICS PAGE 3 OF 16 Energy Flow When energy flows out of a system, it must all flow into the surroundings When energy flows out of a system: E system = - When energy flows into the surroundings: E surroundings = + - E system = E surroundings When energy flows into a system, it must all come from the surroundings When energy flows into a system: E system = + When energy flows out of the surroundings: E

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Chapter 6 - Thermodynamics - GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6...

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