Chapter 4 - Reactions in Aqueous Solution_Part3

Chapter 4 - Reactions in Aqueous Solution_Part3 - GENERAL...

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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 4 – REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION PAGE 11 OF 35 N H H H ammonia + O H H water N + H H H H ammonium ion + OH - hydroxide ion Bases Hydroxide ions (OH - Metal hydroxides: NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH) ) come from two sources: 2 Are strong bases = 100% dissociation of OH - Ammonia: (NH ion in solution 3 ) = NH 4 Does not contain OH OH - Weak base – When dissolved in H ions in its structure 2 O, produces some OH - Example : NaOH (aq) Na ions + (aq) + OH - (aq) Gives 100% OH - ions NaOH (aq) + H 2 O (l) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) + H 2 O (l) Represented as a single arrow Example : Gives less than 100% OH Represented as a single arrow Bronsted – Lowery Theory - The Arrhenius Theory isn’t completely sufficient to study acids and bases WHY? The definition of acids & bases apply only to reactions in aqueous solutions The definition needed to be modified to show that an acid yields the hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) not just H + The definition of acids & bases was modified by chemists Bronsted and Lowry in 1923 Bronsted-Lowry Acid – Any substance that donates an H
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2011 for the course PHYS 4A 60865 taught by Professor L. oldewurtel during the Fall '09 term at Irvine Valley College.

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Chapter 4 - Reactions in Aqueous Solution_Part3 - GENERAL...

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