Chapter 4 - Reactions in Aqueous Solution

Chapter 4 - Reactions in Aqueous Solution - GENERAL...

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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 4 – REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION PAGE 1 OF 35 Solutions Homogeneous mixture = When table salt is mixed with water, it seems to disappear, or become a liquid solution The mixture is homogeneous The NaCl (s) = solute = component that dissolves Solvent = component that dissolves the solute Many times, the chemicals we are reacting together are dissolved in water Aqueous Solutions Mixtures of a chemical dissolved in water = aqueous Dissolving the chemicals in water helps them to react together faster solutions The water separates the chemicals into individual molecules or ions The separate, free-floating particles come in contact more frequently so the reaction speeds up Dissociation When polyatomic ions dissociate , the polyatomic group stays together as one ion = the separation of ionic compounds in water What happens when a solute dissolves? There are attractive forces between the solute particles holding them together There are also attractive forces between the solvent molecules When we mix the solute with the solvent, there are attractive forces between the solute particles and the solvent molecules If the attractions between solute and solvent are strong enough, the solute will dissolve
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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 4 – REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION PAGE 2 OF 35 Example Each ion is attracted to the surrounding water molecules and : Table salt (NaCl) Dissolving in Water pulled off and away from the crystal When it enters the solution, the ion is surrounded by water molecules, insulating it from other ions The result is a solution with free moving charged particles that can conduct electricity Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes Electrolyte = materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will conduct electricity Non-electrolyte To conduct electricity, a material must have = materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will not conduct electricity charged particles that are able to flow Electrolyte solutions all contain ions dissolved in the water Ionic compounds are electrolytes because they all dissociate into their ions when they dissolve Non-electrolyte solutions contain whole molecules dissolved in the water Generally, molecular compounds do not ionize when they dissolve in water Exception is molecular acids Example : Salt versus Sugar Dissolved in Water
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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 4 – REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION PAGE 3 OF 35 Strong Electrolytes Classes of Electrolytes Weak Electrolytes Non-Electrolytes Soluble Ionic Compounds Weak Acids Organic Molecules Strong Acids Weak Bases Solids Strong Bases A compound is Solubility soluble A compound is in a particular liquid if it dissolves in that liquid insoluble There is no way to tell if a compound will be soluble in water See Solubility Rules Handout if it does not dissolve in the liquid Example : Which of the following figures best shows a mixture of BaCl 2 and water?
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2011 for the course PHYS 4A 60865 taught by Professor L. oldewurtel during the Fall '09 term at Irvine Valley College.

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Chapter 4 - Reactions in Aqueous Solution - GENERAL...

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