Chapter 1 - Measurements & Matter

Chapter 1 - Measurements & Matter - GENERAL...

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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 1 – MEASUREMENTS & MATTER PAGE 1 OF 26 Chemistry, Measurement, and Matter Chemistry : = The science that seeks to understand what matter does by studying what atoms and molecules do Chemistry : The Study of Matter and Energy There are 5 main studies of chemistry: Organic Chemistry : The chemistry of the compounds of carbon Inorganic Chemistry : The chemistry of most everything but carbon Analytical Chemistry : The chemistry of finding the quantities of compounds or elements in a sample Physical Chemistry : The chemistry of the properties of substances Biochemistry : The chemistry of living things Atoms and Molecules Atoms = subatomic particles and the fundamental building blocks of all matter Molecules = two or more atoms bonded together Attachments are called bonds Bonds come in different strengths Molecules come in different shapes and patterns Chemists believe that the properties of a substance are determined by the kinds, numbers, and relationships between atoms and molecules Example : Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Composed on 1 carbon atom & 1 oxygen atom Colorless, odorless gas Burns with a blue flame Binds to hemoglobin Composed on 1 carbon atom & 2 oxygen atoms Colorless, odorless gas Incombustible Does not bind to hemoglobin
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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 1 – MEASUREMENTS & MATTER PAGE 2 OF 26 Measurements in Chemistry What is measurement? Quantitative observation Comparison to an agreed upon standard Every measurement is described by a number and a unit The unit describes the standard the object is being compared to Standard Units of Measure Around the world, there is an agreed system of standard units, called the International System of Units (SI units) SI system is constructed of 7 base units = units from which all other units are derived SI Unit Derived from Base Units – Volume Volume - measurement of the amount of space a solid, liquid or gas occupies Volume is not a base SI unit It is derived from length (any length cubed) The cube has a volume of 1m 3 In lab, chemists do not want to measure the volume of a liquid in m 3 It is too huge of a unit! Chemists often use a piece of glassware = graduated cylinder Chemists prefer to use the liter (L) as the base unit 1 L is slightly larger than a quart Since there are 10 dm in a m, then 1m 3 = (10 dm) 1 dm 3 = 1 L Likewise, 1 dm = 10 cm = 1000 cm 3 1 cm 3 = 1mL Commonly measure solid volume in cubic centimeters (cm 3 ) Commonly measure liquid or gas volume in milliliters (mL) SI System Unit Unit Symbol Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Temperature Kelvin K Time seconds s Amount of Substance mole mol Electric Current amphere A Luminous intensity candela cd
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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 1 – MEASUREMENTS & MATTER PAGE 3 OF 26
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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 1 – MEASUREMENTS & MATTER PAGE 4 OF 26 SI Units Derived from Metric Prefixes
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2011 for the course PHYS 4A 60865 taught by Professor L. oldewurtel during the Fall '09 term at Irvine Valley College.

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Chapter 1 - Measurements & Matter - GENERAL...

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