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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 11 – INTERMOLECULAR FORCES, LIQUIDS, & SOLIDS PAGE 9 OF 22 Bubbles you see in boiling water are pockets of gaseous water that have formed within the liquid water Bubbles float to the surface and leave as gaseous water or steam Sometimes when you see bubbles begin to form in hot water below 100 o C, bubbles are dissolved air – not gaseous water Heating Curve of a Liquid As you heat a liquid, its temperature increases linearly until it reaches the boiling point q = m x C s x T Once the temperature reaches the boiling point, all the added heat goes into boiling the liquid The temperature stays constant Once all the liquid has been turned into gas, the temperature can again start to rise Phases Changes Phase change or state change = a change in physical form but not the chemical identity of a substance Fusion (melting) solid liquid Freezing liquid solid Vaporization liquid gas Condensation gas liquid Sublimation solid gas Deposition gas solid Sublimation and Deposition Molecules in the solid have thermal energy that allows them to vibrate Surface molecules with sufficient energy may break free from the surface and become a gas = sublimation The capturing of vapor molecules into a solid = deposition In a closed container, the solid and vapor phases exist in dynamic equilibrium At temperatures below the melting point Therefore, molecular solids have a vapor pressure
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2011 for the course PHYS 4A 60865 taught by Professor L. oldewurtel during the Fall '09 term at Irvine Valley College.

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