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ch11_Part2 - GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 11 INTERMOLECULAR...

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GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 11 – INTERMOLECULAR FORCES, LIQUIDS, & SOLIDS P AGE 5 OF 22 Properties of Liquids Surface Tension Surface tension = the resistance of a liquid to spread out and increase its surface area To minimize their surface area, liquids form drops that are spherical As long as there is no gravity The layer of molecules on the surface behave differently than the interior The cohesive forces on the surface molecules have a net pull into the liquid interior The surface layer acts like an elastic skin Because they have fewer neighbors to attract them, the surface molecules are less stable than those in the interior The stronger the intermolecular attractive forces, the higher the surface tension will be Raising the temperature of a liquid reduces its surface tension Increases the average kinetic energy of the molecules and makes it easier to stretch the surface Viscosity Viscosity = the resistance of a liquid to flow Measured in poise = 1 P = 1 g/cm∙s Often given in centipoises (cP) The larger intermolecular attractions larger viscosity At higher temperature = weaker intermolecular forces lower viscosity Capillary Action Capillary Action = ability of a liquid to flow up a thin tube against the influence of gravity The narrower the tube, the higher the liquid rises The result of two forces working in conjunction = cohesive and adhesive forces Cohesive forces attract the molecules together Adhesive forces attract the molecules on the edge to the tube’s surface The adhesive forces pull the surface liquid up the side of the tube, while the cohesive forces pull the interior liquid with it The liquid rises up the tube until the force of gravity counteracts the capillary action forces
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GENERAL CHEMISTRY
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