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overview - Overview 1.1 Overview 1.2 Speech Processing The...

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Page 1.1 Overview Speech Processing Overview.ppt (15/04/2002) 1.1 Speech is the way of choice for humans to communicate: no special equipment required no physical contact required no visibility required can communicate while doing something else Speech Processing Speech Processing: Coding Synthesis Recognition Identity Verification Enhancement Overview.ppt (15/04/2002) 1.2 The Vocal Tract Velum: closes off nose cavity for all sounds except “m”, “n” and “ng” Epiglottis: closes off larynx during eating Larynx: Vocal folds vibrate during voiced sounds Tongue: used to alter the vocal tract shape To stomach To lungs Vocal Folds Pharynx Cavity Lungs Mouth Cavity Velum Nose Cavity
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Page 1.2 Overview Speech Processing Overview.ppt (15/04/2002) 1.3 Turbulence : air moving quickly through a small hole (e.g./s/ in “size”) Explosion : pressure built up behind a blockage is suddenly released (e.g. /p/ in “pop”) Vocal Fold Vibration : like the neck of a balloon (e.g. /a/ in “hard”) airflow through vocal folds (vocal cords) reduces the pressure and they snap shut (Bernoulli effect) muscle tension and air pressure buildup force the folds open again and the process repeats frequency of vibration (fx) determined by tension in vocal folds and pressure from lungs for normal breathing and voiceless sounds (e.g. /s/) the vocal folds are held wide open and don’t vibrate Speech Sound Categories Voiced : speech sounds where the vocal folds vibrate. Vowels : no blockage of the vocal tract and no turbulence Consonants : non-vowels Plosives : consonants invovling an explosion Sources of Sound Energy Overview.ppt (15/04/2002) 1.4 Vocal Tract Filter
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