Bio Exam 1 Study Questions

Bio Exam 1 Study Questions - Biology 100, Fall 2009 Exam 1...

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Biology 100, Fall 2009 Exam 1 Study Questions (version 3; 09/29/09) The questions on the first hour exam will be based on those given below. Questions on the exam will be in multiple choice form, but if you can answer the questions here, you will have no trouble with the exam. [Note: These questions are meant to provoke thought and study. Do not ask me or the TAs to provide you with the answers. ] 1. Two of the greatest unifying ideas in biology (i.e., concepts that account for and are consistent with a very large number of observations) are the Cell Theory, and the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. Most scientific Theories have two components: the pattern component and the process component. What are the two components of Cell Theory and of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection? What are the two conditions required by the process component of evolutionary theory? The two components of the Cell Theory are that all organisms are made of cells and cells come from preexisting cells. The two components of the Theory of Evolution are species are related by common ancestry and characteristics change from generation to generation. The process of the Theory of Evolution is natural selection. The two conditions required by the process component of evolutionary theory are that individuals must have varying characteristics that are heritable and certain heritable traits help individuals survive better or reproduce more than others. 2. What is the hypothesis of spontaneous generation and how does Cell Theory challenge that hypothesis? In the Pasteur experiment two types of flasks were used. For each flask, what is the outcome predicted by Spontaneous Generation? By Cell Theory? Why did Pasteur use a swan- necked flask? Why did he boil the broth in both flasks? The hypothesis of spontaneous generation states that organisms spontaneously develop under certain conditions. The Cell Theory challenges that hypothesis because it states that preexisting cells are necessary for more cells to grow. The outcome predicted of the two flasks by Spontaneous Generation was that both straight-necked and swan-necked flasks would be filled with cells. The outcome predicted by Cell Theory was that cells would exist in the straight-necked flask but not in the swan-necked flask. Pasteur used a swan-necked flask so preexisting cells from the air would not enter into the flask. He boiled the broth in both flasks to kill any organisms that were already in the broth. Cells would have to develop spontaneously from or from the cells the air that came through the necks of the flasks. 3. Linnaeus proposed that all living organisms fell into two kingdoms: Plants and Animals. What observations conflicted with Linnaeus’ hypothesis? What was Whittaker’s Five Kingdom system and how did it incorporate the new observations? 4.
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Bio Exam 1 Study Questions - Biology 100, Fall 2009 Exam 1...

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