Chapter_15_4E - chapter 15 Ergogenic Aids and Sport...

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15 Ergogenic Aids and Sport chapter
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Learning Objectives Review various substances that have been proposed to be ergogenic aids—substances or phenomena that enhance performance Learn the importance of including control groups and placebos when studying the ergogenic properties of a substance (continued)
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Learning Objectives (continued) Find out the proposed ergogenic benefits, proven effects, and risks of several pharmacological, hormonal, physiological, and nutritional agents Discover which substances that have been considered ergogenic are actually ergolytic—that is, they impair performance
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Ergogenic vs. Ergolytic Ergogenic aid: any substance or phenomenon that enhances performance Ergolytic agent: any substance or phenomenon that has detrimental effects on performance
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Researching Ergogenic Aids Placebo effect: An effect produced by the subject’s expectations after administration of an inactive substance (placebo)
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The Placebo Effect on Muscular Strength Gains Data from G. Ariel and W. Saville, 1972, "Anabolic steroids: The physiological effects of placebos," Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4: 124-126.
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Pharmacological Agents Sympathomimetic amines Beta-blockers Caffeine Diuretics Recreationally used drugs
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Sympathomimetic Amines: Amphetamines Central nervous system stimulants Examples: ephedrine and pseudoephedrine Proposed benefits: Increased concentration and mental alertness (state of euphoria) Decreased sense of mental fatigue Enhanced athletic performance (speed, strength, fatigue resistance)
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Proven Effects and Risks of Sympathomimetic Amines Proven effects Weight loss Reaction time, acceleration, and speed Strength, power, and muscular endurance Possibly aerobic endurance Higher maximum heart rates and peak lactate concentrations at exhaustion Better focus Fine motor coordination Risks Death Cardiac arrhythmias Delay the sensation of fatigue Extreme nervousness Aggressive behavior Insomnia
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Beta-Blockers Prevent the binding of norepinephrine and decrease the effects of the sympathetic nervous system Proposed benefits: may improve accuracy (for shooting sports), decreased anxiety Proven effects: decrease maximum and submaximal heart rate and improve scores in shooting sports Risks: bradycardia, heart block, hypotension, bronchospasm, hypoglycemia, fatigue, and decreased motivation
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Caffeine CNS stimulant; effects are similar to amphetamines Proposed benefits: Increased mental alertness, concentration, reaction time, and energy level Reduced fatigue Increased mobilization and use of FFA
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Chapter_15_4E - chapter 15 Ergogenic Aids and Sport...

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