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CHAPTER 18 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEMS ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION Questions to be addressed in this chapter: What are the phases in the systems development life cycle? Who are the individuals involved in systems development? What techniques are used to plan the development of a system? How do you determine whether a particular system is feasible? How do people respond to systems changes, and how can dysfunctional behavior be minimized? As the environment, technology, and competition change, an information system must continually undergo changes, ranging from minor adjustments to major overhauls. Occasionally the old system is scrapped and replaced. Developing quality, error-free software is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. Projects tend to deliver less than expected and consume more time and money. Omitting basic systems development steps becomes tempting but may lead to disaster. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE Whether systems changes are major or minor, most companies go through a systems development life cycle. In this section, we discuss the steps in the cycle and the people involved. The five stages in the systems development life cycle are: systems analysis; conceptual design; physical design; implementation and conversion; and operation and maintenance. Systems analysis includes: initial investigation; systems survey; feasibility study; determination of information needs and system requirements; and delivery of systems requirements. In the conceptual design phase, the company decides how to meet user needs. Tasks include identifying and evaluating design alternatives; developing design specifications; and delivering conceptual design requirements In the physical design phase, the broad, user-oriented requirements of the conceptual design are translated into detailed specifications that can be used by programmers to code the programs. Tasks include designing outputs, database, and inputs; developing programs; developing procedures; designing controls; and delivering the developed system. Implementation and conversion is the capstone phase during which everything comes together. Tasks include developing an implementation and conversion plan; installing any new hardware and software; training personnel; testing and modifying the system; completing the documentation; converting from old to new system; and delivering an operational system. Once the system is up and running, operations and maintenance continue. Tasks include fine- tuning and post-implementation review; operating the system; periodically reviewing and modifying the system; doing ongoing maintenance; and delivering an improved system. Eventually a major modification or system replacement is necessary, and the systems
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