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LECTURE 1_NOTES - Stratigraphy(study of rock layers and...

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LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GEOLOGY 11 WHAT IS GEOLOGY? Geology is the study of the Earth, the processes that shape it, and the resources that could be obtained from it. GEOLOGY AS A DISCIPLINE 1. the relevance of time 2. the issue of scale 3. the complexity of replicating natural systems and phenomena in the laboratory THE MAIN BRANCHES OF GEOLOGY 1. PHYSICAL GEOLOGY - deals with the materials that comprise the Earth and the processes that affect it Volcanology, Seismology Environmental Geology, Engineering Geology Mining Geology, Petroleum Geology Mineralogy, Petrology (study of rocks and the conditions on which they form) Geomorphology (study of landforms and the processes that shape them) Geophysics, Geochemistry, Planetary Geology (Astrogeology or Exogeology – geology of celestial bodies) 2. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY - the study of the origin and evolution of the Earth through time Paleontology (study of prehistoric life)
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Unformatted text preview: Stratigraphy (study of rock layers and stratification) Geochronology BASIC CONCEPTS IN THE HISTORY OF GEOLOGY 1. Catastrophism- proposed by Baron Georges Cuvier- advocates the idea that sudden, worldwide catastrophes are the agents of change that alter the physical features of the Earth over time and that the latter remains unchanged in between these periods of upheavals- widely accepted by theologians in the early 1800s due to similarity with Biblical events such as the Noachian Flood 2. Uniformitarianism- proposed by James Hutton (The Father of Modern Geology)- often condensed to, “The present is the key to the past .”- advocates the idea that the Earth is continuously modified by geologic processes that have always operated throughout time (albeit at different rates), and that by studying them we can understand how the Earth has evolved through time...
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