ISS 210, SECTION 9, READING STUDY GUIDE II, FALL, 2006
Eitzen, Reading 18 (Kamerman)
Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) includes:
*all arrangements providing care and education for children under compulsory school age
regardless of setting (schools, centers, or carers’ homes), funding (public or private),
hours (part-day, full school day, full work day), or curriculum.
In Europe, these early childhood education and care programs are increasingly available
to all children this age [preschool] because:
*they are considered good for children regardless of their parents’ employment status.
On average, what percentage of early childhood education and care (ECEC) is borne by
parents in Europe, and in the U.S.?
*in most countries government pays the largest share of the costs, with parents covering
only about 11 – 30% in contrast to the 55 – 70% of costs that parents bear in the U.S.
Studies conducted in several European countries show that attending preschool has what
affect on school performances?
*distinct advantages by age 8 for early day care starters and those enrolled in center-
based care. Positive differences were found in languages and all school academic
subjects. Teachers found the early starters more outspoken, less anxious in school
situations, more independent, and more persevering.
What has emerged as the dominant model of ECEC in Europe?
*the movement toward universal preschools has clearly emerged as the dominant model
of ECEC in Europe.
Eitzen, Reading 19 (Morrill)
Vast differences in income and wealth are regarded by the Danes as:
*a primary cause of social pathologies
Starting at the first grade at age 7, how are Danish schools organized?
*the same 20 or so classmates, more or less evenly divided between boys and girls, will
remain together for the next several years. Danish children will also have the same “class
teacher” year after year.
What are the advantages of a class having the same teacher year after year?
*with regard to classroom management and parent participation, and it is a measure that
could easily be adopted by American administrators and teachers who are willing to think
outside the box. One of the most beneficial effects is psychological. When a class and a
teacher know that they will be working together over a period of several years, they are
generally motivated to find ways to get along with one another. Neither pupil nor
teachers can afford to adopt the attitude that next year each will rid the other.
What advantages do Danish teachers derive from teaching the same class year after year?
*instead of becoming complacent or burnt out from teaching the same subject at the same