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Chapter 10 theories of Personality

Chapter 10 theories of Personality - Chapter 10 John...

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Chapter 10. John Dollard Neal Miller Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library Courtesy of the Rockefeller University Archives Chapter Outline Biographical Sketches Hull’s Theory of Learning Drive, Cue, Response, and Reinforcement Response Hierarchies Fear as an Acquired Drive Stimulus Generalization Conflict Displacement Frustration–Aggression Hypothesis Importance of Language Unconscious Mind Neurosis and Symptom Formation Psychotherapy Four Critical Training Situations of Childhood Evaluation Summary Experiential Exercises Discussion Questions The combined efforts of John Dollard and Neal E. Miller created a framework within which complex topics such as personality and psychotherapy could be understood more clearly than they had ever been before. As we shall see, they took two preexisting systems—namely, those of Sigmund Freud and neobehaviorist Clark L. Hull—and synthesized them, thus creating a more comprehensive and more useful theoretical structure than either Freud’s theory or Hull’s theory alone had been. Dollard and Miller dedicated their 1950 book, Personality and Psychotherapy, to “Freud, Pavlov and their students.” The first paragraph of this book reads: This book is an attempt to aid in the creation of a psychological base for a general science of human behavior. Three great traditions, heretofore followed separately, are brought together. One of these is psychoanalysis, initiated by the genius of Freud and carried on by his many able students in the art of psychotherapy. Another stems from the work of Pavlov, Thorndike, Hull, and a host of other experimentalists. They have applied the exactness of natural- science method to the study of the principles of learning. Finally, modern social science is crucial because it describes the social conditions under which human beings learn. The ultimate goal is to combine the vitality of psychoanalysis, the rigor of the natural-science laboratory, and the facts of culture. We believe that a psychology of this kind should occupy a fundamental position in the social sciences and humanities—making it unnecessary for each of them to invent its own special assumptions about human nature and personality. Biographical Sketches John Dollard John Dollard was born in Menasha, Wisconsin, on August 29, 1900. When Dollard was approaching college age, his father, a railroad engineer, was killed in a train wreck. Dollard’s mother, a former school teacher, then moved the family to Madison so that the children could more easily attend the University of Wisconsin. After a short time in the Army, Dollard enrolled in the University of Wisconsin where he studied English and commerce. After obtaining his BA in 1922, Dollard remained Chapter 10 1
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at the university as a fundraiser for the Wisconsin Memorial Union. In his capacity as fundraiser Dollard met Max Mason who became a second father to him. When Mason became president of the University of Chicago, Dollard went with him and acted as his assistant from 1926 to 1929. In 1930,
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Chapter 10 theories of Personality - Chapter 10 John...

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