Chapter 11 theories of Personality

Chapter 11 theories of Personality - Chapter 11 Albert...

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Chapter 11. Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel Stanford University News Service David Eugene Smith Collection, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Chapter Outline Biographical Sketches Consistency of Human Behavior Cognitive Social Person Variables Observational Learning Self-Regulated Behavior Dysfunctional Expectancies and Psychotherapy Social-Cognitive Theory View of Human Nature Evaluation Summary Experiential Exercises Discussion Questions Although Bandura and Mischel have not collaborated on major books, as did Dollard and Miller, their viewpoints are so similar that we consider them together. The position of Bandura and Mischel is referred to as social-cognitive theory . Bandura (1986) explains the reasons for the name: “The social portion of the terminology acknowledges the social origins of much human thought and action; the cognitive portion recognizes the influential causal contribution of thought processes to human motivation, affect, and action” (p. xii). Social-cognitive theory views the interaction between the person and the environment as highly complex and individualistic. Each individual brings to each situation the remnants of previous experience, which are used to deal with the present situation. The outcome of negotiations with the present situation, in turn, influences how similar situations are dealt with in the future. At the heart of social-cognitive theory is the notion of observational learning. The most important fact about observational learning is that it requires no reinforcement. According to Bandura and Mischel, humans learn what they attend to, and therefore, for them, learning is a perceptual process. Thus social-cognitive theory contrasts sharply with the theories of Skinner (see Chapter 9) and Dollard and Miller (see Chapter 10), which rely heavily on the concept of direct reinforcement. 326 Biographical Sketches Albert Bandura Albert Bandura was born on December 4, 1925, in Mundare, a small town in the province of Alberta, Canada. His parents were wheat farmers of Polish heritage. The high school he attended had only 20 students and 2 teachers. Following graduation from high school, Bandura spent the summer working on the Alaskan highway. Many of the men with whom he worked had fled to Alaska to escape “creditors, alimony, and probation officers.” Working with such characters instilled in Bandura “a keen appreciation for the psychopathology of everyday life” (American Psychologist, 1981). Bandura entered the University of British Columbia in 1946 and obtained his BA in 1949, with a major in psychology. He then went to the University of Iowa where he obtained his MA in 1951 and his PhD in 1952. It was at the University of Iowa that Bandura met his future wife, Virginia (Ginny) Varns, who was teaching in the school of nursing there. Bandura and his wife eventually had two daughters, Mary and Carol. After a year’s clinical Chapter 11 1
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internship at the Wichita,Kansas, Guidance Center, he moved to Stanford University, where he has been ever since.
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Chapter 11 theories of Personality - Chapter 11 Albert...

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