7 - Spatial_and_Spatial_Indexing

7 - Spatial_and_Spatial_Indexing - Session 7 : Spatial DB...

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1 Session 7 : Spatial DB & Spatial Indexing CS585 – Fall 2010 – Farid Parvini
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Spatial DB Outline Introduction Modeling Querying Data Structures Introduction Spatial Indexing R-Tree R + -Tree Quadtrees Spatial Indexing Outline
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Spatial Database Applications Various fields/applications require management of geometric, geographic or spatial data: A geographic space: surface of the earth Man-made space: layout of VLSI design Model of rat brain
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What is NOT a Spatial Database! Difference between spatial DBs and image/multimedia DBs: Where images in image databases are raster data no structure to query! Raster data in spatial databases is just part of the spatial data, mostly used for visualization and to make sense of the rest of the data Where objects in image multimedia databases are complex spatial objects, e.g., a 3D mesh too complex for spatial databases, which more focus on manipulating large collection of relatively simple spatial objects (points, lines, polygones, …) and querying their relationships By feature extraction, we can go from an image database to a spatial database
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What is a Spatial Database: Definition A spatial database system: Is a database system A DBMS with additional capabilities for handling spatial data Offers spatial data types (SDTs) in its data model and query language Structures in space: e.g., POINT, LINE, REGION Relationships among them: ( l intersects r ) Supports SDT in its implementation Providing at least spatial indexing (retrieving objects in particular area without scanning the whole space) Efficient algorithm for spatial joins (not simply filtering the Cartesian product)
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Modeling Assuming 2D and GIS applications, two basic entities need to be modeled/represented: Objects in space : e.g., cities, rivers, cars, … Modeling single objects Space : say something about every point in space (e.g., thematic maps that partition a country into districts) Modeling spatially related collections of objects
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Modeling Single Objects Fundamental abstractions for modeling single objects: Point : object represented only by its location in space, e.g., the capital of a state Line (actually a curve or polyline): representation of a moving through or connections in space, e.g., road, river Region : representation of an extent in 2D space, e.g., lake, city
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Instances of spatially related collections of objects: Modeling related Collections of Objects Partition : set of region objects that are adjacent and disjoint, e.g., thematic maps Spatially Embedded Networks : embedded graph in plane consisting of a set of point (vertices) and line (edges) objects, e.g. highways, power lines, rivers, etc.
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Formal Algebra for SDTs What: Defining SDTs and spatial operations on SDTs (returning predicates, and spatial or non-spatial data types) Characteristics: Precise formal definition of SDT values and functions Useful operations that are also effective
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2011 for the course CS 585 at USC.

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7 - Spatial_and_Spatial_Indexing - Session 7 : Spatial DB...

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