BIOL 1510 - Ch 51 notes

BIOL 1510 - Ch 51 notes - 20 Sept 2009 Margo Clark BIOL...

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20 Sept 2009 Margo Clark BIOL 1510 Chapter 51 Group Notes Chapter 51: Animal Behavior behavior an action carried out by muscles or glands under control of the nervous system in response to a stimulus based on physiological systems and processes essential part of processes to sustain life – eating, reproducing subject to natural selection ethology – scientific study of how animals behave proximate causation how a behavior occurs or is modified ultimate causation why a behavior occurs or is modified behavioral ecology – study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior fixed action pattern – sequence of unlearned acts that is essentially unchangeable and, once initiated, usually carried to completion sign stimulus – trigger or external cue for fixed action pattern kinesis – change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus taxis – an oriented movement toward (positive) or away (negative) from a stimulus migration – regular, long-distance change in location use sun, stars, Earth’s magnetic field behavioral rhythms circadian clock – daily cycle of rest and activity cycles by day or longer circannual rhythms – behaviors linked to yearly cycle of seasons lunar cycles – example: crab reproduction signal – stimulus transmitted from one animal to another communication – transmission and reception of signals Example: Drosophila melanogaster – fruit fly courtship constitutes stimulus-response chain response to each stimulus is trigger for next behavior stimuli can be visual chemical
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