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Unformatted text preview: 28 Sept 2009 Margo Clark BIOL 1510 Chapter 52 Group Notes Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Ecology the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment from the Greek oikos + logos, home + study rooted in discovery science; has become an experimental science organismal ecology how an organismss structure, physiology and behavior meet environmental challengeds physiological ecology evolutionary ecology behavioral ecology population ecology analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why it changes over time community ecology examines how interactions between species affect community structure and organization ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and environment landscape ecology focuses on the factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems global ecology examines how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the functioning and distribution of organisms across the biosphere ecology is the study of the minute-to-minute interactions that sum up to evolution environmentalism advocating the protection of nature ecology is not environmentalism ecologists educate; policymakers decide what to do with the information ecology studies the distribution of species biotic living factors; all the organisms that are part of the individuals environment abiotic non-living factors; chemical and physical factors e.g. temperature, light, water, nutrients dispersal the movement of individuals away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density most evident when organisms reach an area they did not previously inhabit natural range expansion species transplant intentional or accidental dispersal to new area successful transplant indicates potential range larger than actual range can be disruptive to communities and ecosystems; rarely intentionally done habitat selection behavior individuals avoid suitable habitat has been studied in some insect populations biotic factors transplanted species must be able to complete full life cycle to succeed negative interactions can prevent survival and reproduction predation parasitism competition absences of positive factors can prevent survival and reproduction no pollinators abiotic factors spatial heterogeneity abiotic factors vary in space temporal heterogeneity abiotic factors vary in time temperature cells may rupture if frozen proteins denature above ~ 45 C metabolism inhibited at very low and very high temps most organisms have specific range of environmental temperature water distribution of terrestrial species reflects ability to obtain and conserve water salinity affects water balance in organisms through osmosis sunlight provides the energy that drives most ecosystems...
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- Spring '07