This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: 28 Sept 2009 Margo Clark BIOL 1510 Chapter 52 Group Notes Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Ecology – the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment from the Greek oikos + logos, home + study rooted in discovery science; has become an experimental science organismal ecology – how an organisms’s structure, physiology and behavior meet environmental challengeds • physiological ecology • evolutionary ecology • behavioral ecology population ecology – analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why it changes over time community ecology – examines how interactions between species affect community structure and organization ecosystem ecology – emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and environment landscape ecology – focuses on the factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems global ecology – examines how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the functioning and distribution of organisms across the biosphere ecology is the study of the minute-to-minute interactions that sum up to evolution environmentalism – advocating the protection of nature ecology is not environmentalism ecologists educate; policymakers decide what to do with the information ecology studies the distribution of species biotic – living factors; all the organisms that are part of the individual’s environment abiotic – non-living factors; chemical and physical factors • e.g. temperature, light, water, nutrients dispersal – the movement of individuals away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density • most evident when organisms reach an area they did not previously inhabit • natural range expansion • species transplant – intentional or accidental dispersal to new area ♦ successful transplant indicates potential range larger than actual range ♦ can be disruptive to communities and ecosystems; rarely intentionally done habitat selection behavior • individuals avoid suitable habitat • has been studied in some insect populations biotic factors • transplanted species must be able to complete full life cycle to succeed • negative interactions can prevent survival and reproduction ♦ predation ♦ parasitism ♦ competition • absences of positive factors can prevent survival and reproduction ♦ no pollinators abiotic factors ♦ spatial heterogeneity – abiotic factors vary in space ♦ temporal heterogeneity – abiotic factors vary in time • temperature ♦ cells may rupture if frozen ♦ proteins denature above ~ 45 C ˚ ♦ metabolism inhibited at very low and very high temps ♦ most organisms have specific range of environmental temperature • water ♦ distribution of terrestrial species reflects ability to obtain and conserve water • salinity ♦ affects water balance in organisms through osmosis • sunlight ♦ provides the energy that drives most ecosystems ♦...
View Full Document
- Spring '07
- Ecology, abiotic factors, aquatic biomes, Benthic zone