ch.52 outline - Chapter52 Overview:TheScopeofEcology...

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Chapter 52 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Overview: The Scope of Ecology Ecology  – the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the  environment. These interactions determine distribution of organisms and their abundance Ecology reveals the richness of the biosphere The Scope of Ecological Research Ecologists work at levels ranging from individual organisms to the planet Organismal ecology- studies how an organism’s structure, physiology, and  behavior meet environmental challengers. Population ecology- focuses on factors affecting how many individuals of a  species live in an area population  is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area Community ecology deals with the whole array of interacting species in a  community Predator-Prey Parasitism Grazing community  is a group of populations of different species in an area Ecosystem ecology-emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among  biotic/abiotic components An  ecosystem  is the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors  with which they interact Landscape ecology deals with arrays of ecosystms and how they are arranged  in a geographic region 
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landscape  is a mosaic of connected ecosystems Global ecology examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms  across the biosphere. The  biosphere  is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems Concept 52.1: Ecology integrates all areas of biological research and informs  environmental decision making Ecology has a long history as a descriptive science(oberservations and  experimentation) It is also a rigorous experimental science Events that occur in ecological time affect life on the scale of evolutionary  time(how adaptations to an evironment evolve by interaction with species Ecology provides the scientific understanding that underlies environmental issues Concept 52.2: Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the  distribution of species Ecologists have long recognized global and regional patterns of distribution of  organisms within the biosphere Biogeography is a good starting point for understanding what limits geographic  distribution of species Ecologists recognize two kinds of factors that determine distribution: biotic, or  living factors , and abiotic factors, or  nonliving factors Ecologists consider multiple factors when attempting to explain the distribution of  species Dispersal and Distribution Dispersal the movement of individuals away from centers of high population 
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