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Chapter 8 - G roup A6.5 Chapter 8 I n t roduction to...

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Group: A6.5 Chapter 8: Introduction to Metabolism Overview: The Energy of Life The living cell Is a miniature factory where thousands of reactions occur Converts energy in many ways Some organisms Convert energy to light, as in bioluminescence An organism’s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics Metabolism Is the totality of an organism’s chemical reactions Arises from interactions between molecules Organization of the Chemistry of Life into Metabolic Pathways A metabolic pathway has many steps That begin with a specific molecule and end with a product That are each catalyzed by a specific enzyme Catabolic pathways Break down complex molecules into simpler compounds Release energy Anabolic pathways Build complicated molecules from simpler ones Consume energy
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Energy Is the capacity to cause change Exists in various forms, of which some can perform work Kinetic energy Is the energy associated with motion Potential energy Is stored in the location of matter Includes chemical energy stored in molecular structure Energy can be converted From one form to another Thermodynamics Is the study of energy transformations According to the first law of thermodynamics Energy can be transferred and transformed Energy cannot be created or destroyed According to the second law of thermodynamics Spontaneous changes that do not require outside energy increase the entropy, or disorder, of the universe Living systems Increase the entropy of the universe Use energy to maintain order The free-energy change of a reaction tells us whether the reaction occurs spontaneously
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