Chromosome Cell Division

Chromosome Cell Division - Chromosome Cell Division:...

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Chromosome Cell Division: Structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes Prokaryotic cell division by fission Two types of eukaryotic cell division: Somatic cells divide by mitosis Only germline cells undergo meiosis How is DNA packaged in cells? How do mitosis and meiosis differ? in purpose mitosis: duplicate identical daughter cells. Meiosis: generate sperm and egg cells. Genetic diversity. in mechanism in chromosome behavior and segregation Behavior of chromosomes in meiosis is key to sexual reproduction and genetics!
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Ploidy:
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Diploid: 2 copies of each chromosome (homologous pair) Gametic cells (e.g., sperm and egg cells) are haploid: 1 copy of each chromosome Triploid = 3 copies, tetraploid = 4 copies, etc. (commercial strawberries are octoploid) Aneuploidy: incomplete set (missing or extra copy of one or more chromosomes) Eukaryotic Cell Divsion Cycle: G1 start checkpoint: Process environment and determines whether or not if should divide. (Gap 1). Time period between end of mitosis and beginning of DNA replication. G2 checkpoint: M checkpoint: Bacterial cell fission Diversity of eukaryotic mitosis Mitosis: generates daughters identical to parent Single cell division: one cell ® 2 cells No change in ploidy Somatic cells, germ-line cells before meiosis Unaffected by ploidy Asexual reproduction: cellular cloning Mitosis: interphase to prophase
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Interphase: cell growth, chromosome replication Prophase: nuclear envelope breakdown, chromsome condensation; each chromosome is pair of sister chromatids; mitotic spindle forms, connects to chromosomes at kinetochores (located at centromeres) Metaphase Mitosis: metaphase to telophase Metaphase: chromosomes line up at equatorial plane. Anaphase:
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Chromosome Cell Division - Chromosome Cell Division:...

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