Module 3 Energy Enzymes

Module 3 Energy Enzymes - What drives biological reactions?...

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What drives biological reactions? • Energy – how do the laws of thermodynamics affect living organisms? • How do enzymes work?
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Thermodynamics • First law: energy cannot be created or destroyed • Second law: in any energy conversion, some energy is wasted and unavailable for work; moreover, the entropy of any closed system always increases.
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Q: If entropy always increases, then how do living organisms create macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues, and complex higher-order structures? a. The laws of thermodynamics do not apply to living organisms. b. Living organisms use energy from the sun to accomplish the work of decreasing entropy. c. Living organisms create order locally, but the energy transformations generate waste heat that increase the entropy of the universe. d. Living organisms convert light energy or chemical energy into organic matter.
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Gibb's free energy and work • Free energy (G) = Enthalpy (H) - Temperature (T) x Entropy (S) G = H - T S
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Exergonic vs Endergonic reactions
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All spontaneous reactions proceed toward equilibrium •All chemical reactions, even exergonic ones, are theoretically reversible; explain.
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Are chemical reactions at equilibrium in living cells? a.
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Module 3 Energy Enzymes - What drives biological reactions?...

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