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Unformatted text preview: • Cells as smallest, or most fundamental unit of life o Genetic information (module 4) • Replication • Expression (genotype-phenotype) o Organic molecules and macromolecules • Boundaries and structure • Energy metabolism • There are 68 molecules that are necessary to construct all life on earth, they serve as the building blocks o There are molecules required for nucleic acids, glycans (polysaccharides), proteins, and lipids • Macromolecules, o What are the major types of biological macromolecules and their subunits? (building blocks) o What are the physico-chemical forces or interactions that affect the structure and function of each type of macromolecule? o How do variations in structure/composition of macromolecules affect their function and the adaptation of the organisms to their environment? • What's in a cell? By weight: o Cells are made of large molecules (25%), water(about 70%), and then about 5% ions and small molecules o Large molecules are made up mostly of proteins, then nucleic acids, then carbohydrates, and then lipids • Adipocytes are fat cells • Proteins=polypeptides they are made as linear chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. • There are 20 different amino acids and they all differ in the R-group • Peptide bonds are formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the other amino acid, a water is released and a peptide bond is formed • In any polypeptide chain, one side is going to have a free amino group (n terminus) and the other is going to have a carboxyl group (c terminus) o Nonpolar amino acids are hydrophobic, all of the side chains of the hydrophobic amino acids have nonpolar covalently bonded atoms of carbon and hydrogen o Polar amino acids are hydrophilic, their side chains have polar covalent bonds between the atoms • Don't need to memorize the amino acids structures, but we need to remember that their R-groups (side-chains) have very physical chemical properties • Most of the cellular functions are carried out by the protein and their structures determine what function they serve in the cell • Protein structure has many levels: o The primary structure is the order of the amino acids in the polypeptide chain o Secondary structure: is the beta pleated sheet, and the alpha helix. These secondary structures are formed by hydrogen bonds. And these hydrogen bonds involve the backbone, which consists of an amino group of a polypeptide chain, a carbon group, and the carboxyl group. When looking at the backbone we ignore the side chains o Tertiary structure is the overall 3 dimensional structure. Within the tertiary structure there are alpha helix and beta pleated sheet, but the way that these secondary structures are arranged determines the tertiary structure....
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2011 for the course BIO 1510 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '07 term at Georgia Tech.
- Spring '07
- Organic Molecules