Module 3 Notes - Cells as smallest or most fundamental unit...

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Cells as smallest, or most fundamental unit of life o Genetic information (module 4) Replication Expression (genotype-phenotype) o Organic molecules and macromolecules Boundaries and structure Energy metabolism There are 68 molecules that are necessary to construct all life on earth, they serve as the building blocks o There are molecules required for nucleic acids, glycans (polysaccharides), proteins, and lipids Macromolecules, o What are the major types of biological macromolecules and their subunits? (building blocks) o What are the physico-chemical forces or interactions that affect the structure and function of each type of macromolecule? o How do variations in structure/composition of macromolecules affect their function and the adaptation of the organisms to their environment? What's in a cell? By weight: o Cells are made of large molecules (25%), water(about 70%), and then about 5% ions and small molecules o Large molecules are made up mostly of proteins, then nucleic acids, then carbohydrates, and then lipids Adipocytes are fat cells Proteins=polypeptides they are made as linear chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. There are 20 different amino acids and they all differ in the R-group Peptide bonds are formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the other amino acid, a water is released and a peptide bond is formed In any polypeptide chain, one side is going to have a free amino group (n terminus) and the other is going to have a carboxyl group (c terminus) o Nonpolar amino acids are hydrophobic, all of the side chains of the hydrophobic amino acids have nonpolar covalently bonded atoms of carbon and hydrogen o Polar amino acids are hydrophilic, their side chains have polar covalent bonds between the atoms Don't need to memorize the amino acids structures, but we need to remember that their R-groups (side-chains) have very physical chemical properties Most of the cellular functions are carried out by the protein and their structures determine what function they serve in the cell Protein structure has many levels: o The primary structure is the order of the amino acids in the polypeptide chain o Secondary structure: is the beta pleated sheet, and the alpha helix. These secondary structures are formed by hydrogen bonds. And these hydrogen bonds involve the backbone, which consists of an amino group of a polypeptide chain, a carbon group, and the carboxyl group. When looking at the backbone we ignore the side chains o Tertiary structure is the overall 3 dimensional structure. Within the tertiary structure there are alpha helix and beta pleated sheet, but the way that these secondary structures are arranged determines the tertiary structure.
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