My Notes Ch. 52 Biology

My Notes Ch. 52 Biology - Chapter 52 An Introduction to...

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Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Overview: The Scope of Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment. These interactions determine distribution of organisms and their abundance. Ecology reveals the richness of the biosphere. The Scope of Ecological Research Organismal ecology studies how an organism’s structure, physiology and behavior meets the environments challenges. Population ecology focuses on factors affecting how many individuals of a species live in one area. Community ecology deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community o A community is a group of populations of different species in an area. Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among various biotic and abiotic components. o An ecosystem is the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact. Landscape ecology deals with arrays of ecosystems and how they are arranged o A landscape is a mosaic of connected ecosystems. Global ecology examines the influence of energy and materials on organism’s across the biosphere. o The biosphere is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems. 52.1 - Ecology integrates all areas of biological research and informs environmental decision making Ecology has a long history as a descriptive science, it is also a rigorous experimental science Events that occur in ecological time affect life on the scale of evolutionary time Ecology provides the scientific understanding that underlies environmental issues
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Why is species X absent from an area? Does dispersal limit its distribution? Does behavior limit its distribution? Area inaccessible or insufficient time Yes No No No Yes Yes Habitat selection Do biotic factors (other species) limit its distribution? Predation, parasitism, competition, disease Do abiotic factors limit its distribution? Chemical factors Physical factors Water Oxygen Salinity pH Soil nutrients, etc. Temperature Light Soil structure Fire Moisture, etc. 52.2 - Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species Ecologists have long recognized global and regional patterns of distribution of organisms within the biosphere. Biogeography is a good starting point for understanding what limits geographic distribution of species. Ecologists recognize two kinds of factors that determine distribution: biotic, living factors, and abiotic, nonliving factors. Ecologists consider multiple factors when attempting to explain the distribution of species… Dispersal and Distribution Dispersal is movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area of origin. Dispersal contributes to global distribution of organisms.
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My Notes Ch. 52 Biology - Chapter 52 An Introduction to...

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