sept14-18 - Chapter 51 Animal Behavior Behavior: an action...

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Chapter 51 Animal Behavior Behavior: an action carried out by muscles or glands under control of the nervous system in response to stimulus. o Examples: using muscles in chest and throat to produce a song, or releasing a particular scent in the area. All of animal physiology contributes to behavior. 51.1: Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors Ethology: the scientific study of how animals behave, particularly in their natural environment. Understanding any behavior requires answering: 1. What stimulus elicits the behavior, and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response? 2. How does the animal’s experience during growth and development influence the response? 3. How does the behavior aid survival and reproduction? 4. What is the behavior’s evolutionary history? Proximate causation (questions 1-2): “how” a behavior occurs or is modified. Ultimate causation (questions 2-3): “why” a behavior occurs in the context of natural selection. Behavioral ecology : the study of ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior. 1. Fixed Action Patterns Fixed action pattern: a sequence of unrelated acts that Is essentially unchangeable and, once initiated, usually carried to completion. Sign stimulus: External trigger cue of a fixed action pattern. 2. Oriented Movement Kinesis and Taxis o Kinesis : a change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus. o Taxis: an oriented movement toward (positive taxis) or away from (negative taxis) some stimulus. Migration o Migration: a regular, long-distance change in location Use the sun or the starts to migrate, or sense their position relative to the Earth’s magnetic field. Circadian clock: internal mechanism that maintains the a 24-hour activity rhythm or cycle. 3. Behavioral Rhythms Circadian clock plays a huge role in everyday life of animals. It’s synchronized with the light and dark cycles of the environment
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Circannual rhythms: behavioral rhythms linked to the yearly cycle of seasons 4. Animal Signals and Communication Signal : one stimulus transmitted from one animal to another Communication : an essential element of interactions between individuals. o
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2011 for the course BIO 1510 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '07 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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sept14-18 - Chapter 51 Animal Behavior Behavior: an action...

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