Biology Ch 5 group notes - C h 5 notes 5.1: Macromolecules...

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Ch 5 notes 5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers There are 4 main classes of large molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Carbs , proteins, and nucleic acids are classified as macromolecules (giant molecule formed from smaller molecules) –They are also classified as polymers (long molecule chain consisting of similar building blocks linked by covalent bonds). Polymers are made up of monomers (building blocks). Monomers are connected into polymers by condensation reactions in which two molecules covalently bond to each other through loss of a water molecule (also called dehydration reaction ). Polymers can be broken back down into monomers by hydrolysis (bonds broken by adding h2o) ex. the process of digestion Enzymes are specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells. The difference between human siblings reflects variations in polymers, especially DNA and proteins. Proteins are built from 20 kinds of amino acids arranged in chains that are hundreds of amino acids long. 5.2: Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material Includes sugars and polymers of sugars. Monosaccharides are simple sugars. They generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH 2 O. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is the most common monosaccharide. Glucose molecules and most other sugars form rings in aqueous solutions. Disaccharides are made up of two monosaccharides joined together in a glycosidic linkage (a covalent bond between 2 monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction). The most common disaccharide is sucrose.
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The molecular trademarks of a sugar are a carbonyl group (C=O) and multiple hydroxyl groups (-OH). The position of the carbonyl determines whether the sugar is an aldose (ex. glucose) or a ketose (ex. fructose). Monosaccharide (esp. glucose) are major food for cells-cellular respiration starts with the extraction of energy with reactions involving glucose. Polysaccharides are polymers w/ 100-1000 monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkage. -often serve as storage (of sugar for later use) and building material. Plants store starch (glucose monomers polymer) as granules within plastids. Animals store glycogen (polymer of glucose)-humans store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells. Structural polysaccharides include cellulose (the most abundant organic compound on Earth) which is a major component of tough walls in plant cells. Chitin
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2011 for the course BIO 1100 taught by Professor Chang during the Spring '10 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Biology Ch 5 group notes - C h 5 notes 5.1: Macromolecules...

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