How is DNA typing done

How is DNA typing done - H ow is D NA typing done? O nly...

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How is DNA typing done? Only one-tenth of a single percent of DNA (about 3 million bases) differs from one person to the next. Scientists can use these variable regions to generate a DNA profile of an individual, using samples from blood, bone, hair, and other body tissues and products. In criminal cases, this generally involves obtaining samples from crime-scene evidence and a suspect, extracting the DNA, and analyzing it for the presence of a set of specific DNA regions (markers). Scientists find the markers in a DNA sample by designing small pieces of DNA (probes) that will each seek out and bind to a complementary DNA sequence in the sample. A series of probes bound to a DNA sample creates a distinctive pattern for an individual. Forensic scientists compare these DNA profiles to determine whether the suspect's sample matches the evidence sample. A marker by itself usually is not unique to an individual; if, however, two DNA samples are alike at four or five regions, odds are great that the samples are from the same person. If the sample profiles don't match, the person did not contribute the DNA at the crime scene. If the patterns match, the suspect may have contributed the evidence sample. While there is a chance that someone else has the same DNA profile for a particular probe set, the odds are exceedingly slim. The question is, How small do the odds have to be when conviction of the guilty or acquittal of the innocent lies in the balance? Many judges consider this a
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2011 for the course BIO 1100 taught by Professor Chang during the Spring '10 term at Georgia Tech.

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How is DNA typing done - H ow is D NA typing done? O nly...

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