hp-chap4 (1) - Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and...

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Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Selective Precipitation 4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations (see separate file) 4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations (skip) 8/24/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 4 1
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Chapter 4 Objectives 4.1: Discuss the idea of a chemical solution and the components of a solution. Emphasize that water is the most common solvent in a solution. 4.2: Introduce molarity (M) as a calculation of a way describing the atomic/molecular composition of a solution. 4.3: Emphasize acid-base, precipitation, and redox reactions as common solution chemistry reactions. 4.4: Include examples of solution stoichiometry calculations that will be emphasized throughout the semester in both lecture and laboratory. Note: Section 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations will be Covered with Chapter 16 Electrochemistry. 8/24/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 4 2
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8/24/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 4 3 Water, the Common Solvent Hydration or Dissolution: Solution: Two (or more) substances spread out, or disperse, into each other at the level of individual atoms, molecules, or ions. A homogeneous mixture Solvent: Solute: The major component The minor component In principle, the solute and solvent can be any combination of solid ( s ), liquid ( l ), and gaseous ( g ) phases.
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Ionic Compounds in Water: All ionic compounds are solids (salts) in the range of temperature in which water is a liquid. They have rigid lattices in which strong forces (ionic bonds) pin the constituent ions in place. The high melting points of ionic compounds indicate that a good deal of energy must be supplied to destroy the lattice and produce a liquid (molten) form in which the ions move more freely. Molecules of water are electrically dipolar ( polar ). Hydration: When water touches an ionic compound such as NH 4 NO 3 , the negative poles of some of the water molecules attract the positive ions ( cations ) while the positive poles of others attract the negative ions ( anions ). 8/24/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 4 4
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Ionic Compounds in Water: Solute is said to dissociate into ions or to ionize upon dissociation. 8/24/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 4 5
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• Pairs of liquids that mix in any proportion are termed miscible . Liquids that do not mix are termed immiscible "Like dissolves like" in other words, substances with similar intermolecular attractive forces tend to be soluble in one another 8/24/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 4 6
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“like dissolves like” concept 8/24/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 4 7 CHO OH H H OH OH H OH H CH 2 OH O H HO H HO H OH OH H H OH OH HO OH HO HO O fructose O OH HO OH HO HO glucose NH 2 O OH alanine HO ethanol O H H water OH OH HO O HO O OH OH HO HO O sucrose ==
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“like dissolves like” concept HO octanol octane benzene isobutane cyclohexane Cl Cl Cl Cl carbon tetrachloride Non-Polar 8/24/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 4 8
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2011 for the course CHEM 1310 taught by Professor Cox during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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hp-chap4 (1) - Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and...

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