hp-chap5 - Chapter 5 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory...

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Chapter 5 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory 5.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 5.2 The Nature of Matter 5.3 The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen 5.4 The Bohr Model 5.5 The Quantum Mechanical Description of the Atom 5.6 The Particle in a Box (skip) 5.7 The Wave Equation for the Hydrogen Atom 5.8 The Physical Meaning of a Wave Function 5.9 The Characteristics of Hydrogen Orbitals 5.10 Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle 5.11 Polyelectronic Atoms 5.12 The History of the Periodic Table 5.13 The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table 5.14 Further Development of the Polyelectronic Model 5.15 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 5.16 The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals CHEM 1310HP
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CHEM 1310HP Chapter 5 Objectives : 5.1 Introduce the concept of Electromagnetic radiation and important fundamentals that will be applied to the quantum mechanical model. 5.2 Discuss early theories about the nature of matter. 5.3 Present the atomic spectrum for hydrogen and discuss line spectra. 5.4 Outline Bohr’s Theory and explain its fundamental flaws. 5.5 Introduce the quantum mechanical model. 5.6 Provide a qualitative description of the solutions of the Schrodinger equation including the fundamental descriptions of quantum numbers. 5.7 Incorporate the use of electron configurations to describe representative locations of electrons within atoms and ions. 5.8 Include a discussion of Aufbau, Pauli, and Hund’s work toward the development of quantum models and electron configurations. 5.9 Discuss Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties
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Questions • What is quantum mechanics? • When do we need it? • What does it do? • How does it apply to the H atom? CHEM 1310HP
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Quantum Mechanics (QM) Quantum mechanics is… • The set of rules obeyed by small systems (molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles) • One of the two greatest achievements of 20 th century physics • The basis for new research into smaller electronic devices (e.g., quantum dots) • Required to understand chemistry CHEM 1310HP
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The two-slit experiment • Fire very small particles at a barrier with two tiny slits in it… expect a result like this: R. Shankar, Principles of Quantum Mechanics CHEM 1310HP
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The two-slit experiment • For very small particles, actually get something more like this… R. Shankar, Principles of Quantum Mechanics An interference pattern! Wavelike properties! CHEM 1310HP
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Actual experiment with electrons Results of a double-slit experiment sending one electron through at a time. Numbers of electrons are (a) 10, (b) 200, (c) 6000, (d) 40000 (e) 140000 Strange: the wave-like interference pattern happens even when we send through only one electron at a time!!! CHEM 1310HP
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Even stranger… • If we watch to see which slit a particle goes through, the interference pattern disappears and we see the “expected” pattern! The experiment changes depending on how we observe it! • Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics,
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hp-chap5 - Chapter 5 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory...

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