hp-chap6 - Chapter 6 Bonding; General Concepts 6.1 Types of...

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09/08/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 6 1 Chapter 6 Bonding; General Concepts 6.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 6.2 Electronegativity 6.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments 6.4 Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes 6.5 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds 6.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds 6.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model 6.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions 6.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model 6.10 Lewis Structure 6.11 Resonance 6.12 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 6.13 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model
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09/08/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 6 2 Chapter 6 Objectives 6.1: Explain the basic concepts surrounding bonding including the Leonard – Jones potential, electronegativity, ionization, and electron affinity. 6.2: Illustrate the spectrum of bonding based upon percent ionic character. 6.3: Discuss Lewis Structures. 6.4: Describe resonance and formal charges. 6.5: Outline the characteristics of polar bonds and polar molecules. 6.6: Discuss VSEPR theory.
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09/08/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 6 3 “Sometimes it seems to me that a bond between atoms has become so real, so tangible, so friendly, that I can almost see it. Then I awake with a little shock, for a chemical bond is not a real thing. It does not exist. No one has ever seen one. No one ever can. It is a figment of our own imagination.” Charles A. Coulson, 1955 1910-1974 University of Oxford
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09/08/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 6 4 What we represent, when we draw a molecule, is what we want to represent: we abstract a piece of reality to show it to another person." Roald Hoffmann Chemistry Nobel Laureate Cornell University
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09/08/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 6 5 Preliminaries Our knowledge of atomic structure, electron configurations and periodic properties gives a foundation for understanding bonding. Electrons can be divided into: Valence electrons participate in bonding through:
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09/08/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 6 6 Types of Chemical Bonds Ionic Bonding Ionic substances are formed when an atom that loses electrons relatively easily reacts with an atom that has a high affinity for electrons
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09/08/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 6 7 Chemical Bonding The energy of interaction between a pair of ions can be calculated by using Coulomb's law
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09/08/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 6 8 Potential Energy At Rest Stretched, then relaxed Compressed, then relaxed Potential Energy
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09/08/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 6 9 Atoms or molecules approach at large distance zero PE (energy of position initially)) PE goes negative as attraction intermolecular forces come into play PE minimum energy, maximum attraction achieved, outweighs the repulsive forces PE goes positive as repulsive forces dominate
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09/08/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 6 10 Types of Chemical Bonds Covalent Bonding Electrons are shared by the nuclei Whenever possible, the valence electrons in a compound are distributed in such a way that each main-group element in a molecule (except hydrogen) is surrounded by eight electrons (an octet of electrons ). Hydrogen should have two electrons in such a structure .
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09/08/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 6 11 The effect of an electric field on hydrogen fluoride molecules.
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hp-chap6 - Chapter 6 Bonding; General Concepts 6.1 Types of...

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