hp-chap10 - Chapter 10 Properties of Solutions 10.1...

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Chapter 10 Properties of Solutions 10.1 Solution Composition 10.2 The Thermodynamics of Solution Formation (skip) 10.3 Factors Affecting Solubility 10.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions 10.5 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression 10.6 Osmotic Pressure 10.7 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions 10.8 Colloids 10/2/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 1
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Chapter 10 Objectives 10.1: Define solutions and the different mathematical methods for describing solution composition. 10.2: Provide a qualitative and pictorial description of vapor pressure. 10.3: Discuss Raoult’s Law in a quantitative and qualitative method for describing vapor pressure. 10.4: Outline the role of colligative properties and provide mathematical and qualitative descriptions for colligative properties. 10/2/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 2
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Solution Composition The solute and solvent can be any combination of solid ( s ), liquid ( l ), and gaseous ( g ) phases. Dissolution: Two (or more) substances spread out, or disperse, into each other at the level of individual atoms, molecules, or ions. Solution: A homogeneous mixture 10/2/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 3 Solvent: Solute: The major component The minor component
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Solution Composition Mass percentage (weight percentage): mass percentage of the component = X 100% mass of component total mass of mixture Mole fraction: The chemical amount (in moles) divided by the total amount (in moles) X 1 = n 1 / (n 1 + n 2 ) X 2 = n 2 / (n 1 + n 2 ) = 1 X 1 Define: Mass Fraction , Mole Fraction , Molality and Molarity 10/2/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 4
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Molality m solute = moles solute per kilogram solvent = moles per kg or mol kg -1 10/2/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 5 Molarity c solute = moles solute per volume solution = moles per liter or mol L -1 Note the difference between Molality and Molarity
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Section 10-2 • The Thermodynamics of Solution Formation ( skip ) • will cover Thermodynamics later in course, 10/2/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 6
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Factors Affecting Solubility 1. Structure Effects Review chapter 4 – “Like Dissolves Like” concept Polar molecules , water soluble, hydrophilic (water loving) E.g., Vitamins B and C; water-soluble Non-polar molecules , soluble in non-polar molecules, hydrophobic (water fearing) E.g., Vitamins A, D, K and E; fat-soluble 10/2/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 7
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10/2/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 8 1. Structure Effects 2. Pressure Effects Henry’s Law (for dilute solutions) The vapor pressure of a volatile solute (gas) in a sufficiently dilute solution is proportional to the mole fraction of the solute in the solution. P=
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2011 for the course CHEM 1310 taught by Professor Cox during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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hp-chap10 - Chapter 10 Properties of Solutions 10.1...

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