hp-chap11 - Chapter 11 Chemical Equilibrium 11.1 The...

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Chapter 11 Chemical Equilibrium 11.1 The Equilibrium Condition 11.2 The Equilibrium Constant 11.3 Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures 11.4 The Concept of Activity 11.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 11.6 Applications of the Equilibrium Constant 11.7 Solving Equilibrium Problems 11.8 Le Chatelier's Principle 11.9 Equilibria Involving Real Gases 10/13/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 1
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Chapter 11 Objectives 11.1 Define equilibrium and explain on a microscopic level why equilibrium is observed. 11.2 Introduce the equilibrium constant as a way of defining the extent of equilibrium. Include a discussion of the use of pressure, concentration, and activity when expressing equilibrium. 11.3 Describe the relationships which exist among equilibrium constants for heterogeneous reactions. 11.4 Provide examples of how to solving equilibrium problems. 11.5 Outline the fundamentals of Le Chatelier's Principle 10/13/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 2
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dD cC bB aA + ⎯⎯ ⎯→ + reverse forward aA + bB cC + dD Same equilibrium achieved whether starting with pure reactants or pure “products” 10/13/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 3
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Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium The equilibrium condition for every reaction can be described in a single equation in which a number, the equilibrium constant (K) of the reaction, equals an equilibrium expression , a function of properties of the reactants and products. H 2 O( l ) H 2 O( g ) @ 25 o C 10/13/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 4 Temperature ( o C) Vapor Pressure (atm) 15.0 0.01683 17.0 0.01912 19.0 0.02168 21.0 0.02454 23.0 0.02772 25.0 0.03126 30.0 0.04187 50.0 0.1217 H 2 O( l ) H 2 O( g ) @ 30 o C K = 0.03126 K = 0.04187
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Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium The concept of Activity ( i- th component) = a i = P i / P reference H 2 O ( l ) H 2 O ( g ) K p = P H 2 O K p = 0.03126 atm @ 25 o C P H 2 O P ref = K P ref is numerically equal to 1 K = 0.03126 The convention is to express all pressures in atmospheres and to omit factors of P ref because their value is unity. An equilibrium constant K is a pure number. 10/13/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 5
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10/13/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 6 H 2 O (g) + CO (g) H 2 (g) + CO 2 (g) CO O H CO H p P P P P K 2 2 2 = Same equilibrium achieved whether starting with pure reactants or pure “products”
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Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium As the equilibrium state is approached, the forward and backward rates of reaction approach equality. At equilibrium the rates are equal, and no further net change occurs in the partial pressures of reactants or products. Four fundamental characteristics of equilibrium states in isolated systems: 1. They display no macroscopic evidence of change. 10/13/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 7 2. They are reached through spontaneous processes. 3. They show a dynamic balance of forward and backward processes. 4. They are the same regardless of the direction from which they are approached. dD cC bB aA + ⎯⎯ ⎯→ + reverse forward
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The Form of Equilibrium Expressions dD cC bB aA + ⎯⎯ ⎯→ + reverse forward In a chemical reaction in which a moles of species A and b moles of species B react to form c moles of species C and d moles of species D,
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hp-chap11 - Chapter 11 Chemical Equilibrium 11.1 The...

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