hp-chap14 (1) - Chapter 14 Energy Enthalpy and...

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Chapter 14 Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry 14.1 The Nature of Energy 14.2 Enthalpy 14.3 Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases 14.4 Calorimetry 14.5 Hess's Law 14.6 Standard Enthalpies of Formation 14.7 Present Sources of Energy (skip) 14.8 New Energy Sources (skip) 11/2/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 14 1
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Chapter 14 Objectives 14.1: Provide an introduction to the fundamental ideas of heat and work in thermodynamics and include a discussion of the sign conventions used for the system and surrounding to denote the specific process taking place. 14.2: Introduce the first law of thermodynamics with an emphasis on the role of the system and surrounding in maintaining conversation of energy. 14.3: Include a discussion of heat capacity and the various forms of heat capacity used for calculations. 14.4: Complete a series of calculations using a “path” diagram to illustrate the difference in state and path functions in thermodynamics. 14.5: Discuss calorimetry as an application of thermodynamics (including heat capacity and enthalpy) as well as the idea of thermal equilibrium which is the zeroth law of thermodynamics. 14.6: Introduce Hess’ Law as a way of working with state functions and obtaining parameters for reactions that may not be easily completed experimentally. 14.7: Reiterate stoichiometry by providing examples of how the heat absorbed or released is influenced by the mole quantities present in a chemical reaction. GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 14 2
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The Person Behind the Science James Prescott Joule (1818-1889) 3 Highlights Studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work Led to the theory of conservation of energy, which led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics Worked with Lord Kelvin to develop the absolute scale of temperature Pupil of John Dalton (Atomic Theory) Joule effect: found the relationship between the flow of current through a resistance and the heat dissipated, now called Joule's law Moments in a Life Gravestone is inscribed with the number “772.55” the amount of work, in ft lb, he determined experimentally to be required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water by 1° Fahrenheit. “772.55”
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Endo thermic Reactions Reactants + Heat Products 11/2/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 14 4
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Thermite Reaction 2 Al (s) + Fe 2 O 3 (s) Al 2 O 3 (s) + 2Fe (s) Exo thermic Reactions Reactants Products + Heat GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 14 5 11/2/2009
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The Nature of Energy Law of conservation of energy : energy can be converted from one form to another but can be neither created of destroyed. Potential energy ( e.g ., E potential = mg h) Kinetic energy ( e.g ., E Kinetic = (1/2mv 2 ) Energy transfer – Through heat (frictional heating) – Through work The study of energy and its interconversions is called thermodynamics 11/2/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 14 6
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First Law of Thermodynamics “The Law of Conservation of Energy” E = q + w where E is the internal energy of a system) q = Heat Absorbed by a system 9 If q > 0 , heat is absorbed 9 If q < 0 , heat is given off w
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