hp-chap17 - Chapter 17 Objectives 17.1: Discuss the basic...

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Chapter 17 Objectives 17.1: Discuss the basic approaches to kinetics including rate laws, experimental design, kinetic plots, and mathematical considerations. 17.2: Emphasize the role of kinetics for elucidating reaction mechanisms with a a strong emphasis on systems at equilibrium. 17.3: Introduce the kinetic-molecular theory, and the Arrhenius equation. 17.4: Conclude the semester with a discussion of catalysis and inhibition processes in chemical reactions. 11/30/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 1
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Chapter 17 Chemical Kinetics • 17.1 Reaction Rates • 17.2 Rate Laws: An Introduction • 17.3 Determining the Form of the Rate Law • 17.4 The Integrated Rate Law • 17.5 Rate Laws: A Summary • 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms • 17.7 The Steady-State Approximation • 17.8 A Model for Chemical Kinetics • 17.9 Catalysis 11/30/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 2
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11/30/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 3 Reaction Mechanisms Most reactions proceed not through a single step but through a series of steps Each Step is called an elementary reaction Types of elementary reactions 1. Unimolecular (a single reactant) E.g., A B + C (a decomposition) 2. Bimolecular (most common type) E.g., A + B products 3. Termolecular (less likely event) E.g., A + B + C products
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• Reaction Mechanism – is a detailed series of elementary steps and rates which are combined to yield the overall reaction – One goal of chemical kinetics is to use the observed rate to chose between several possible reaction mechanisms. 11/30/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 4
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To measure rates we could monitor the disappearance of reactants or appearance of products e.g., NO 2 + CO NO + CO 2 t X t t X X s L mol s L mol s L mol t X i f i f ] [ ] [ ] [ rate average / are units ] [ rate reaction average 1 1 = = = = = 11/30/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 5 t ] [CO t [NO] t [CO] t ] [NO rate rxn 2 2 + = + = = =
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To measure rates we could monitor the disappearance of reactants or appearance of products e.g., 2NO 2 + F 2 2NO 2 F t F NO t F t NO rate ] [ 2 1 ] [ ] [ 2 1 2 2 2 + = = = 11/30/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 6
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Generalized Reaction aA + bB cC + dD t D d t C c t B b t A a rate ] [ 1 ] [ 1 ] [ 1 ] [ 1 = + = = = 11/30/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 7 NO 2 + CO NO + CO 2 t X t t X X i f i f ] [ ] [ ] [ rate average = =
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Order of a Reaction 2 2 1 2 5 2 2NO O k O N + ⎯→ A decomposition k ” is called a Rate constant and is f (temperature) k[A] rate Products k aA n e.g., = An “n th order” reaction 11/30/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 8 A Rate Expression or Rate Law
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] [ k aA products e.g., n A k rate = n = 0 “zeroth order” reaction n = 1 “first order” reaction n = 2 “second order” reaction 11/30/2009 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 9 n does not have to be an integer n = 3/2 “three halves order” reaction Note that “n” does not necessarily equal the coefficient (“a”) of the reactant. It is related to the reaction mechanism and determined experimentally.
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2011 for the course CHEM 1310 taught by Professor Cox during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Tech.

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hp-chap17 - Chapter 17 Objectives 17.1: Discuss the basic...

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