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Kidney+Stones+Experimental+Guidelines+F+2009 - ACS...

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ACS Chemistry Laboratory Supplement Project-Based Labs Kidney Stones Page 1 Kidney Stones Introduction The analytical laboratory of a major research hospital has employed your team. You have been asked to investigate the formation of kidney stones. In many areas of the country, kidney stones are a severe problem and their treatment is not well understood. Your task is to investigate the causes of these stones and design ways in which the formation of the stones might be prevented in the body. This may allow you to recommend treatments for patients suffering from these stones. Kidney stones are formed when ions react to form an insoluble precipitate. The stones are composed of an inorganic salt, sometimes complexed in an organic matrix. You will be provided with soluble sources for many of the most common ions in the body, including cations of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. You will also have soluble sources for common anions in the body, including chloride, oxalate, phosphate, hydrogen phosphate, and dihydrogen phosphate. Project Tasks Some of these tasks will be accomplished experimentally and some by library or web-based research in appropriate resources. 1. Determine what ions are present in kidney stones. 2 . Replicate the formation of kidney stones in the lab. 3. Predict which combinations of ions will produce kidney stones in the lab. 4. Find patterns in the solubility of compounds formed. 5. Understand why some mixtures of ions do not seem to react while others result in a precipitate. 6. Find ways to use the properties of these ions to prevent formation of precipitates. 7. Manipulate conditions to make precipitates more soluble. 8. Comment on which conditions used in the lab might be compatible with physiological processes. 9. Determine if the size of a lab kidney stone affects its solubility. Learning and Performance Objectives 1. Understand the principles of solubility of ionic compounds and be able to predict the solubility of a given compound from its formula. 2 . Understand the differences in reactivity between large stones and smaller ones. 3. Suggest ways to redissolve a kidney stone under laboratory conditions. 4. Suggest ways to prevent the formation of kidney stones, at least under laboratory conditions. 5. Understand the effect of pH on formation and solubility of kidney stones under laboratory conditions. 6. Understand how complexing agents are useful in increasing solubility.
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Project-Based Labs ACS Chemistry Laboratory Supplement Page 2 Kidney Stones 7. Use your chemical knowledge to solve a “real world” problem. 8. Handle solutions of acids and bases safely. Resources Available 1. A strategy for determining solubility patterns 2. A general approach for preparing kidney stones of larger size 3. Two different approaches for redissolving a prepared kidney stone Reports 1. Planning sheets are to be completed as directed by your instructor.
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