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Unformatted text preview: Public Policy
A Review of Social Economic Foreign & Security Policy Public Policy: Social Policy What is Public Policy?
• Policy formulated by the government to solve a problem that the people share collectively or that they cannot solve on their own. Know influences American Public Policy What influences American Public Policy?
• Mood of public • Statements by Statements leaders leaders • Pressures from Pressures special interests special • Actions of Actions Governmental bodies Governmental • Crises – foreign and Crises domestic domestic What are the Features of American Public Policymaking?
• • • • • • • • Incrementalism Multiplicity of Policy Makers Outside Influences Symbol and substance Impermanence Dynamism Complexity Compromise How does Policy Come About? • • • • • • • Agenda Setting Policy Formulation Policy Adoption Implementation Evaluation Modification Implementation of Modifications Public Policy falls into 2 Broad Areas
Domestic Foreign But no clear lines separate the two
Foreign Policies affect Domestic Domestic Policies affect Foreign Domestic Policy
3 Categories Categories Redistributive Distributive Regulatory Redistributive Redistributive
Shifts wealth, income, other resources from income, from “haves” to ‘have nots.” - e.g. progressive taxation, unemployment comp, welfare Distributive Distributive
Encourage private citizens to perform or not perform certain functions or to meet the needs of various groups Regulatory Regulatory
Designed to specify how private individuals or groups may conduct themselves • E.g.:
– civil & criminal laws Domestic Policy Domestic
2 primary components Social Policy Economic Policy Social Policy Social What is Social Policy?
• Policy designed to improve the wellbeing/quality of life of citizens
– Usually by guaranteeing a certain minimal standard of living and certain basic opportunities. How Does Social Policy Defer from Economic Policy?
• Economic Policy is designed to improve the well-being of citizens by bringing about an overall growth and stability to the economy. A Major Purpose of Social Policy is Major EQUITY Fairness, Justice, Impartiality
2 Types of Equity Procedural equity Substantive equity • Procedural equity = equal opportunity to obtain rewards of society • Substantive equity = requirement that some outcomes, even under the fairest of procedures be prohibited if they entail unreasonable deprivation or disadvantage for some citizens. Four Principal Categories of Social Policy
1. Provide Benefits in form of opportunities and choices 2. Affect the Provision of Resources 3. Affect the Provision of Social services 4. Confer benefits on groups of people 1. Provide Benefits in form of opportunities and choices and
(Primarily involves Procedural Equity) For Example - Protection from Discrimination
• • Not unilinear
– Civil Rights Act 1875: declared Unconst. in 1883 Frequently provided by Constitution’s Bill of Rights or Amendments
– 13th Amend Dec 1865: Prohibits slavery – 14th Amend Jul 1868: Extends Bill of Rights to preclude State infringement – 19th Amend: Aug 1920: Women’s suffrage • Commerce Clause
– Heart of Atlanta Motel v US (1964)– Discrimination in Motels – Katzenbach v McClung (1964)– Discrimination in Restaurants • But also through laws
– Civil Rights Act 1964
• aimed at “Jim Crow Laws” i.e. Discrimination thru literacy tests, taxes, etc 1. Provide Benefits in form of opportunities and choices Continued opportunities
E.G. Protection from discrimination in Education
Through S.C. cases, laws, regulations, e.g. – Civil Rights Act 1964 – Brown v Board of Ed 1954 – Title IX, Education Amendment of 1972 – Discrim based on sex – 1975 Dept of Health, Ed, & Welfare Regs – Affirmative Action Laws • Regents of Univ. of Calif. v Bakke 1978 1. Provide Benefits in form of opportunities and choices opportunities
Protection of Rights of Workers, e.g.
• Employees Liability Act 1908 – ended “contract” pay • Norris-LaGuadia Act 1932 – right to strike/no “yellow dog” contracts contracts • NLRA (Wagner Act) 1935 – right to organize and bargain • Fair Labor Std Act 1938 – min wages, hours, child labor • Taft-Hartley Act 1947 – banned “closed” and “union” shops • ERA –not ratified (35/38) Const Amend – rights of working women women • Kaiser Alum v. Weber 1979 – Affirmative Action not reverse discrimination discrimination • Civil rights Act 1991 – Strengthened civil rights laws, banned discrimination in work place discrimination 2. Provision of Resources 2.
(Primarily Substantive Equity)
• Usually involves a redistribution of wealth
– Cash payments
• • • • Social Security Welfare Unemployment benefits Aid to families – In- kind benefits
• Food stamps • Child care • Health – shots, exam 3. Provision of Social Service
(To groups rather than individuals)
Education – fed, state, local subsidies • Morrill Act 1962, 1890 • Elem. and Secondary Ed Act 1965 ++ - for low income children and those w/ special needs Adult skills training/Retraining • Improve skills • Sometimes Govt. provides employment afterwards • Manpower Development Act 1962 - retraining • Econ Opportunity Act 1964: Est Job Corps: training for youths/disadvantaged • Comprehensive Employment & Training Act (CETA) 1973 • Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) 1982 Housing – programs to help poor buy/rent • Housing Act s 1937, 1949 • Model Cities program 1966 4. Confer Benefits on Groups of People Two types of laws/Regs
Laws designed to encourage action/inaction Laws imposing govt. standards 4. Confer Benefits on Groups of People 4.
Laws designed to encourage action/inaction. e.g.
• Action/Positive injunctions, e.g. – Requiring inoculations – Requiring parents to support children – Requiring child-support payments • Inaction/Negative injunctions, e.g. – Prohibit Gambling, certain sexual practices, taking drugs, crimes of all sorts 4. Confer Benefits on Groups of People • Laws imposing govt. standards – Standards for water, air, land, nuclear safety, food purity, consumer product safety, truth in lending act, etc Social Programs generally funded through Taxation
• Income, property, sales, gas, job, etc
– Regressive – Poor pay a larger share of income – Proportional – All income taxed at same rate – Progressive – higher incomes pay higher taxes Public Policy Economic Policy What is Economic Policy?
• Economic Policy is Economic designed to improve the well being of well citizens by bringing about an overall growth and stability growth to the economy. to How Does Economic Policy Differ from Social Policy?
• Social Policy is designed to improve the well being of citizens by guaranteeing a certain minimal standard of living and certain basic opportunities.
– The Purpose of Social Policy – EQUITY
• Fairness, justice, impartiality • Both procedural & substantive The Purposes of Economic Policy
• Bring overall growth and Bring stability to economy so as stability to improve on the wellto being of the citizenry • Generally by influencing Generally the availability of goods & services services
– By affecting supply and/or By demand demand – By providing goods/ services By providing • Also by insuring health & Also safety of work force & consumers Government Tools and Techniques
• Principle Government Tools
– – – – – Macro Economic Policies Subsidies Public ownership Regulation Deregulation Macro Economic Policies
2 Basic Categories Fiscal Policy Monetary Policy Fiscal Policy
Govt attempts to influence economy by manipulating
– govt spending and/or – taxation Monetary Policy Monetary
Govt attempts to influence economy by Govt manipulating the money supply and availability of credit availability
– Open Market Operations: Sales/purchases of Govt securities securities – Discount Rate: Interest banks pay for Fed loan – Reserve Requirement: Amount (as %) banks must keep in reserve keep Subsidies
• Subsidies - A form of Govt support for private individuals or business
– Why Subsidize? To affect production & supply of goods and services
– – – – – – – – – Provide Power Renovation of inner cities Build/operate railroads Plant crops/not to plant crops Loan guarantees, e.g. for education Build/operate airports Auto companies – keep competition Indirect loans/insurance: e.g. nuclear pwr industry Direct Loans: e.g. SBA, Rural Power Administration (power to farmers), student loans – FDIC – Tax incentives: e.g. Mortgage interest rate deductions, real estate tax deductions – Tax concessions to foreigners: e.g. to encourage investment in the US Public Ownership
• Why Public Ownership? Too costly or risky for private individuals/enterprises, but economically and socially desirable
• Manned space program • Utilities • US Post Office Regulation
• Regulation (Munn vs Illinois, 1877) SC affirmed public right to regulate business under certain conditions.
– Why regulate?
• • • • • • • • To enhance competition Avoid monopolies Avoid price fixing Prevent constraints on supplies To control inflation – wage + price controls To provide for health, safety, etc of work force To control the quality of the product Etc How does the Govt regulate?
• Through Anti-trust laws • Wage and price controls/incomes policy • Through a variety of Govt agencies & Through commissions commissions Deregulation
• Of parts of an industry • Of an industry itself: e.g. airline industry - 1978 Public Policy: Foreign and Defense Policy Foreign Policy is a country’s official Foreign positions, practices, and procedures for dealing with actors outside its for outside borders (Barbour & Wright) Objectives
• To provide for the security and well being of citizens through interaction with foreign governments, non-governmental organizations, other international actors, and supra-national organizations. Who Makes and Manages AFP
• Executive Branch
– Natl Sec Council/staff (NSC)
• Overall responsibility for Natl Sec – State Department (DOS)
• Overall Development & Management of AFP • Assists in Development of Natl Sec Strategy – Dept of Defense (DOD)
• Assists in Development of Natl Sec Strategy • Develops National Military Strategy • Development, Acquisition, deployment, & employment of Mil forces • Treasury Department
– – – – Econ Sanctions & Embargoes Intl Markets Foreign Technical assistance Trade • US Dept of Agriculture (USDA)
– Foreign Agriculture Service – Intl Food Aid • Dept of Commerce (DOC)
– Advises businesses on Foreign trade/business opportunities – Advises on Export controls • Dept of Justice
– Drug Enforcement Agency – Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and firearms (import of weapons • Health and Human Services
– Food and Drug Admin
• Imports meet US Stds • Dept of Homeland Security
– Border & Transportation security – Emer Preparedness & Response – CBR countermeasures • Etc Who Influences AFP Formulation? Formulation? The Primary Influencers The Federal Bureaucracy Business & Industry Media & Public Opinion State & local govts Principle Government Tools/Instruments Political/Diplomatic Economic Military Force Psychological These tools are not mutually exclusive When used together in a carefully integrated fashion We call this: “strategy” Strategy Defined
• A General definition: “Strategy is the integrated application of available means to achieve desired ends” • In Foreign & National Security Policy Context: “ Strategy is the integrated application of the instruments of national power (pol, econ, mil, psycho) to achieve desired ends” Know what are the Underlying Sources of American Foreign Policy Policy Some Underlying Sources of American Foreign Policy?
• AFP derived from basic attitudes/beliefs/values • Product of the Enlightenment period
– – – – – – – – Faith in the individual Governance through consent of the governed Free market economy Freedom of speech, religion, assembly, etc Freedom from tyranny Freedom from fear/persecution Right to property Etc These values reflected in AFP
BY National Security Strategy & Specific US foreign policies NSS 2006 Founded on 2 Pillars focuses on 9 areas 2 Pillars Pillars
1. Promoting freedom, justice, and human Promoting dignity -- working to end tyranny, to promote dignity effective democracies, and to extend effective and prosperity through free and fair trade and fair wise development policies wise 2. Confronting the challenges of our time by 2. leading a growing community of democracies. leading 9 Areas of focus 1. 1. 1. Champion Aspiration for Human Dignity Strengthen Alliances to Defeat Global Terrorism and Work to Prevent Attacks Strengthen Against Us and Our Friends Against Work with Others to Defuse Regional Conflicts Prevent Our Enemies from Threatening Us, Our Allies, and Our Friends with Prevent Weapons of Mass Destruction Weapons Ignite a New Era of Global Economic Growth Through Free markets and Free Ignite Trade Trade Expand the Circle of Development by Opening Societies and Building the Infrastructure of Democracy Develop Agendas for Cooperative Action with Other Centers of Global Power Transform America’s National Security Institutions to Meet the Challenges and Transform Opportunities of the 21st Century Opportunities Engage the Opportunities and Confront the Challenges of Globalization 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. How has AFP Changed Over Time?
• Isolationism • Internationalism • Globalism ...
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- Spring '08