DSP6 MCDB27 - Comparative Literature 27 – Jullien/Kosik...

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Unformatted text preview: Comparative Literature 27 – Jullien/Kosik • • Honoré de Balzac (1799 – 1850) Adieu (1830) The Human Comedy (1844) Adieu Madness and Trauma • • • 19:29 A three­part drama: chronological complexity (An old monastery – The passage of the Berezina – The cure) A three­part drama: patient and doctors (Stephanie – Philippe – Dr. Fanjat) Stephanie’s symptoms: amnesia, aphasia, animal behavior The Berezina: Madness as Metaphor and Reality • • • • Catastrophic failure of empire, November 1812 Annihilation of Napoleon’s “Great Army” at the Berezina Social disintegration: epic madness Mental disintegration: psychological madness Dehumanization and Trauma • • • Stephanie’s ordeal: violence, sexual degradation (84) Bichette and the cannibals (78): a mirror image Hunting metaphors The Beginning of Modern Psychiatry • • • Philippe Pinel (1745 – 1826) – Medico­philosophical Treatise on insanity (1801) Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol (1782 – 1840) – Studied with Pinel – Succeeded him at Salpétrière hospital for the insane 18th century: first attempts to treat the insane with humanity – Dr. Pinel releasing lunatics from their chains at the Salpétrière asylum in 1795 (Tony Robert­Fleury, 1876) Comparative Literature 27 – Jullien/Kosik • 19:29 • • “The Representational Cure” The Past as Spectacle: – Philippe’s artificial Berezina – A new entertainment: the Panoramas Early Psychiatric Therapy – Dr. Esquirol on curing “melancholia” with fear, 1819 – Dr. Pinel on curing war trauma through stagings – Staging plays in insane asylums during the Revolution The two doctors in “Adieu”: Dr. Fanjat’s cure vs. Philippe’s cure “Adieu” and Modern Psychiatry Mechanics, method and logic of the cure? Repetition as liberation Psychodrama Contemporary debate around Exposure Therapy Confronting the fear Virginia Woolf (1882 – 1941) Mrs. Dalloway (1925) • • • • • • • Main plot: Clarissa’s party Subplot: Septimus’s suicide Shell shocked Septimus Symptoms of “shell shock”? – Flashbacks of Evans’s death – Nightmares, aphasia – Delirious moments and hallucinations Patients and Doctors Brutal treatment of trauma patients during World War I: treated as “malingerers,” cowards, liars Accused of trying to escape the war into illness Electric shocks used to make treatment worse than fighting in battle Freud mentions deaths from electric shocks • • • • • Comparative Literature 27 – Jullien/Kosik 19:29 • • • • Impact of World War I on Freud’s theory Already done major work on neuroses and hysteria PTSD as a kind of male hysteria Introduction to Psychoanalysis & War Neuroses, 1919 Beyond the Pleasure Principle: concepts of “repetition compulsion” and “death drive” ...
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