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Unformatted text preview: Types of Effects Types of Effects 1. Cognitive Effects—knowledge, beliefs 2. Attitudinal Effects—affect, feelings, positive/negative, evaluative, directional 3. Behavioral Effects—conative effects, actions 4. Physiological Effects—body reactions, heart beat, perspiration, pupil dilation, sexual arousal Other Effects Other Effects
1. ThirdPerson Effect Attributing media effects to others, but not yourself 2. Sleeper Effect Delayed effect Hypodermic Needle Bullet Theory Silver/Magic Bullet Theory I. Direct Effects (Learning) I. Direct Effects (Learning) Theory Similar to psychology theories S → R Evidence/Examples of Direct Effects Evidence/Examples of Direct Effects
1. Belief in media: War of the Worlds broadcast 1938 (6 million people believed) 2. Imitation: Imitation of violent acts seen on TV or in films II. Minimal or Limited Effects II. Minimal or Limited Effects Effects are limited by selective processes— people filter media information and persuasion through their predispositions. Selective Exposure Selective Attention Selective Perception Psychological models of S→O→R Source: Joseph Klapper, 1960 (The Effects of Mass Communication). Electronic Media do not operate like Resonance Theory of Resonance Theory of Communication traditional print or linear media. Instead of a linear or “Transportation Model” of communication, they are more like a DISPERSAL pattern or ripples from a central point in a circular pattern
Tony Schwartz The Responsive Chord 1973 Resonance theory of communication is based on Resonance theory of communication is based on the same principles. You are persuaded not by providing/receiving/processing new information but by keying off or activating stored memories of what is already present in the brain Association with pleasure or fear or some other emotion. Other Current Theories Other Current Theories 1. Media Dependency Theory 2. Cultivation Theory 3. AgendaSetting Theory 4. Framing and Priming 5. Uses and Gratifications Theory 6. Elaboration Likelihood Model/Theory 1. Media Dependency Theory 1. Media Dependency Theory . Audiences depend on media information to meet needs and reach goals The degree of dependence is influenced by: The number and centrality of information functions. Media functions : Entertainment Monitoring government activities Education Social Cohesion Developed by BallRokeach and DeFluer 2. Cultivation Theory 2. Cultivation Theory Persistent long term exposure to TV content has measurable effects on the perceptual worlds of audience members. TV has surpassed religion as the key storyteller of our (US American) culture. Example: Heavy TV viewing creates an exaggerated belief in a “mean and scary world.” Can have a prosocial or positive effect—no smoking Developed by George Gerbner 3. AgendaSetting Theory 3. AgendaSetting Theory Media are NOT successful in telling us WHAT to think but they are stunningly successful at telling us what to think about. Agenda of issues covered in media are viewed as salient by public. Source: McCombs and Shaw, 1972 4. FRAMING AND PRIMING 4. FRAMING AND PRIMING Framing Choosing and emphasizing some elements over others in reporting of news events or issues Is it secondlevel agendasetting the selection of attributes? PRIMING PRIMING
Priming: the process of making some aspects of an issue more salient than others in the formation of opinions; telling people what criteria or issue saliences to use in the judgments of public officials or issues. 5. Uses and Gratifications Theory 5. Uses and Gratifications Theory It’s not what the media DO TO YOU, but what YOU DO with the media. Belief in an active audience. Uses/Gratifications Uses/Gratifications Personal identity Surveillance Personal relationships Entertainment/diversion/ excitement Vote Guidance 6. Elaboration Likelihood Model 6. Elaboration Likelihood Model 2 paths to persuasion: 1. Central – receiver is motivated to think about message, uses rational thinking to elaborate or expand on the message/can lead to lasting persuasion 2. Peripheral – not relevant to issue/emotional responses more likely ...
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- Spring '08