chm12 - Chemical Kinetics Chemical Kinetics Thermodynamics...

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Chemical Kinetics
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Chemical Kinetics Thermodynamics – does a reaction take place? Kinetics – how fast does a reaction proceed? Reaction rate is the change in the concentration of a reactant or a product with time ( M /s). A B rate = - [A] t rate = [B] t [A] = change in concentration of A over time period t [B] = change in concentration of B over time period t Because [A] decreases with time, [A] is negative .
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A B rate = - [A] t rate = [ B ] t time
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Br 2 ( aq ) + HCOOH ( aq ) 2Br - ( aq ) + 2H + ( aq ) + CO 2 ( g ) time 393 nm light Detector [Br 2 ] α Absorption
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Br 2 ( aq ) + HCOOH ( aq ) 2Br - ( aq ) + 2H + ( aq ) + CO 2 ( g ) average rate = - [Br 2 ] t = - [Br 2 ] final – [Br 2 ] initial t final - t initial slope of tangent slope of tangent slope of tangent instantaneous rate = rate for specific instance in time
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rate α [Br 2 ] rate = k [Br 2 ] k = rate [Br 2 ] = rate constant = 3.50 x 10 -3 s -1
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2H 2 O 2 ( aq ) 2H 2 O ( l ) + O 2 ( g ) PV = nRT P = RT = [O 2 ] RT n V [O 2 ] = P RT 1 rate = [O 2 ] t RT 1 P t = measure P over time
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Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry 2A B Two moles of A disappear for each mole of B that is formed. rate = [B] t rate = - [A] t 1 2 a A + b B c C + d D rate = - [A] t 1 a = - [B] t 1 b = [C] t 1 c = [D] t 1 d
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Write the rate expression for the following reaction: CH 4 ( g ) + 2O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2H 2 O ( g ) rate = - [CH 4 ] t = - [O 2 ] t 1 2 = [H 2 O] t 1 2 = [CO 2 ] t
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The Rate Law The rate law expresses the relationship of the initial instantaneous rate of a reaction to the rate constant and the concentrations of the reactants raised to some powers. a A + b B c C + d D Rate = k [A] x [B] y reaction is x th order in A reaction is y th order in B reaction is (x +y)th order overall
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F 2 ( g ) + 2ClO 2 ( g ) 2FClO 2 ( g ) rate = k [F 2 ] x [ClO 2 ] y Double [F 2 ] with [ClO 2 ] constant Rate doubles x = 1 Quadruple [ClO 2 ] with [F 2 ] constant Rate quadruples y = 1 rate = k [F 2 ][ClO 2 ]
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F 2 ( g ) + 2ClO 2 ( g ) 2FClO 2 ( g
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2011 for the course CHEM 2035 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '10 term at University of Florida.

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chm12 - Chemical Kinetics Chemical Kinetics Thermodynamics...

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