chm16 - Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Chapter 8...

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Unformatted text preview: Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Chapter 8 ns 1 ns 2 ns 2 np 1 ns 2 np 2 ns 2 np 3 ns 2 np 4 ns 2 np 5 2 6 d 1 d 5 d 10 4f 5f Ground State Electron Configurations of the Elements Electron Configurations of Cations and Anions Na [Ne]3s 1 Na + [Ne] Ca [Ar]4s 2 Ca 2+ [Ar] Al [Ne]3s 2 3p 1 Al 3+ [Ne] Atoms lose electrons so that cation has a noble-gas outer electron configuration. H 1s 1 H- 1s 2 or [He] F 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 F- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne] O 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 O 2- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne] N 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 N 3- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne] Atoms gain electrons so that anion has a noble-gas outer electron configuration. Of Representative Elements +1 +2 +3-1-2-3 Cations and Anions Of Representative Elements Na + : [Ne] Al 3+ : [Ne] F- : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne] O 2- : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne] N 3- : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne] Na + , Al 3+ , F- , O 2- , and N 3- are all isoelectronic with Ne What neutral atom is isoelectronic with H- ? H- : 1s 2 same electron configuration as He Electron Configurations of Cations of Transition Metals When a cation is formed from an atom of a transition metal, electrons are always removed first from the ns orbital and then from the ( n 1) d orbitals. Fe: [Ar]4s 2 3d 6 Fe 2+ : [Ar]4s 3d 6 or [Ar]3d 6 Fe 3+ : [Ar]4s 3d 5 or [Ar]3d 5 Mn: [Ar]4s 2 3d 5 Mn 2+ : [Ar]4s 3d 5 or [Ar]3d 5 Effective nuclear charge (Z eff ) is the positive charge felt by an electron....
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chm16 - Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Chapter 8...

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