chm18 - Gases Chapter 5 Elements that exist as gases at...

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Gases Chapter 5
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Elements that exist as gases at 25 0 C and 1 atmosphere
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Gases assume the volume and shape of their containers. Gases are the most compressible state of matter. Gases will mix evenly and completely when confined to the same container. Gases have much lower densities than liquids and solids. Physical Characteristics of Gases
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Units of Pressure 1 pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m 2 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr 1 atm = 101,325 Pa Barometer Pressure = Force Area ( force = mass x acceleration)
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Sea level 1 atm 4 miles 0.5 atm 10 miles 0.2 atm
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Manometers Used to Measure Gas Pressures
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As P (h) increases V decreases Apparatus for Studying the Relationship Between Pressure and Volume of a Gas
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P α 1/ V P x V = constant P 1 x V 1 = P 2 x V 2 Boyle’s Law Constant temperature Constant amount of gas
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A sample of chlorine gas occupies a volume of 946 mL at a pressure of 726 mmHg. What is the pressure of the gas (in mmHg) if the volume is reduced at constant temperature to 154 mL? P 1 x V 1 = P 2 x V 2 P 1 = 726 mmHg V 1 = 946 mL P 2 = ? V 2 = 154 mL P 2 = P 1 x V 1 V 2 726 mmHg x 946 mL 154 mL = = 4460 mmHg P x V = constant
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As T increases V increases
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Variation of gas volume with temperature at constant pressure. V α T V = constant x T V 1 / T 1 = V 2 / T 2 T (K) = t ( 0 C) + 273.15 Charles’ & Gay-Lussac’s Law Temperature must be in Kelvin
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A sample of carbon monoxide gas occupies 3.20 L at 125 0 C. At what temperature will the gas occupy a volume of 1.54 L if the pressure remains constant? V 1 = 3.20 L T 1 = 398.15 K V 2 = 1.54 L T 2 = ? T 2 = V 2 x T 1 V 1 1.54 L x 398.15 K 3.20 L = = 192 K V 1 / T 1 = V 2 / T 2 T 1 = 125 ( 0 C) + 273.15 (K) = 398.15 K
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Avogadro’s Law V α number of moles ( n ) V = constant x n V 1 / n 1 = V 2 / n 2 Constant temperature Constant pressure
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