{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

chm19 - Reactions in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4 A solution...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Reactions in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances The solute is(are) the substance(s) present in the smaller amount(s) The solvent is the substance present in the larger amount Solution Solvent Solute Soft drink ( l ) Air ( g ) Soft Solder ( s ) H 2 O N 2 Pb Sugar, CO 2 O 2 , Ar, CH 4 Sn
Image of page 2
An electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity. A nonelectrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved, results in a solution that does not conduct electricity. nonelectrolyte weak electrolyte strong electrolyte
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Strong Electrolyte – 100% dissociation NaCl ( s ) Na + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) H 2 O Weak Electrolyte – not completely dissociated CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO - ( aq ) + H + ( aq ) Conduct electricity in solution? Cations (+) and Anions (-)
Image of page 4
Ionization of acetic acid CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO - ( aq ) + H + ( aq ) A reversible reaction. The reaction can occur in both directions. Acetic acid is a weak electrolyte because its ionization in water is incomplete.
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Hydration is the process in which an ion is surrounded by water molecules arranged in a specific manner. δ + δ - H 2 O
Image of page 6
Nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity? No cations (+) and anions (-) in solution C 6 H 12 O 6 ( s ) C 6 H 12 O 6 ( aq ) H 2 O
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Precipitation Reactions Precipitate – insoluble solid that separates from solution molecular equation ionic equation net ionic equation Pb 2+ + 2NO 3 - + 2Na + + 2I - PbI 2 ( s ) + 2Na + + 2NO 3 - Na + and NO 3 - are spectator ions PbI 2 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2NaI ( aq ) PbI 2 ( s ) + 2NaNO 3 ( aq ) precipitate Pb 2+ + 2I - PbI 2 ( s )
Image of page 8
Precipitation of Lead Iodide PbI 2 Pb 2+ + 2I - PbI 2 ( s )
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature.
Image of page 10
Solubility of NaCl in water at 20°C = 365 g/L Solubility of AgCl in water at 20°C = 0.009 g/L (Solubility is a complex matter, dealing with enthalpy and entropy, and we’ll cover this more in Chapters 6 and 12) So, Precipitation Reactions are Ion Exchange reactions driven by removal of ions from solution via insoluble ionic compound formation – this is also energy-driven and we’ll discuss this later as well. To predict whether or not a precipitation reaction will occur when two aqueous solutions are mixed: 1. Note all ions present in both of the solutions, and 2. Note all possible combinations of ions, and 3. Are any of the possible combinations insoluble in water?
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Writing Net Ionic Equations 1. Write the balanced molecular equation. 2. Write the ionic equation showing the strong electrolytes completely dissociated into cations and anions. 3. Cancel the spectator ions on both sides of the ionic equation 4. Check that charges and number of atoms are balanced in the net ionic equation AgNO 3 ( aq ) + NaCl ( aq ) AgCl ( s ) + NaNO 3 ( aq ) Ag + + NO 3 - + Na + + Cl - AgCl ( s ) + Na + + NO 3 - Ag + + Cl - AgCl ( s ) Write the net ionic equation for the reaction of silver nitrate with sodium chloride.
Image of page 12
Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) in water Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH - in water NaOH(s) Na + + OH
Image of page 13

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern