2w004 - TOPIC 6. HUMAN HEALTH AND PHYSIOLOGY SUMMARY 6.1.1....

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Unformatted text preview: TOPIC 6. HUMAN HEALTH AND PHYSIOLOGY SUMMARY 6.1.1. Why do we digest food? Large molecules have to be decomposed into smaller molecules that will go through the cell membranes and enter different metabolic processes. pow The process of digestion1 ‘4 , Ingestion: Eating ,w,‘ , Digestion: Ingested food is transformed into smaller molecules ’ Absorption: Digested molecules enter the blood and lymphatic vessels. Trans,o_ort Blood carries smaller molecules to the cells. Table 1. Molecules before and after digestion. Molecule type Molecular form ingested Molecular form after digestion Proteins Protein Amino acids Lipids Triglycerides Glycerol + Fatty acids Carbohydrates Mono, Di and Monosaccharides Polysaccharides Nucleic Acids DNA, RNA Nucleotides 6.1.2. The need for enzymes in digestion. a. Enzymes are catalysts: Lower the activation energy and the amount of heat released during a reaction. b. Enzymes are specific. 0. Most digestive enzymes have hydrolytic activity. / J,_ , 5M." 5. I 7‘ 6.1.3. State the source, substrate, products and optimum pH conditions for one amylase, one protease and one lipase. ‘K Salivary amylase Pepsin (protease) Pancreatic 4’ lipase Source Salivary glands Stomach cells Pancreatic cells Substrate Amwse (starchl Proteins (Eolypept) Lipids Products Maltose + Glucose Amino acids Glycerol + Fatty acids Optimum pH 7 3 Orodicrynx (/ ‘\ \ l \ __\ , Oral cavity ‘ _ / TGIQJE Esophagus Slomddi - P310635 transverse colon JEIJllUm ’5! tom c on Redurn 6.1.5. Outline the function of the stomach small intestine and lar e intestine. The stomach Peristalsis (contractions of smooth muscle) moves the food down the esophagus. Once in the stomach, the food mixes with stomach secretions (gastric juice). Gastric juice contains: 1. Stomach pegsin: A protease enzyme, active at low pH. 2. H_Cl: Keeps the pH low and helps breaking down food. 3. Mucus: Lines the stomach and prevents damage from HCl. Two valves regulate the entrance and exit of the stomach: The cardiac valve and the pylonc valve. bows .. ml.wa of 83ng cacti-Cr, SPHmterS -. Ram musaes . Has 4, 50““ "Md WWW“ C0 Mow/i», b) Cardl‘ac = Stomach enhance C) Paloma 1W5“ e’dt a) 0an Lowe: Fundus esophagea'\ hr ne'ch Sp Serosa Cardia Body Vusc ular :5 Lesser Longitudinal curvature layiar Pylnrus Cutular lay‘e' Obncue l3.er l l Greater Cdl‘v'afblf; Duodenum Pyioric Py,‘aric Hugae of mucosa 5°”'"‘?‘°' cana Pylonc anlrum wave] The small intestine The first portion of the small intestine is the duodenum (see above). Three accessory organs open into the duodenum, the liver, the gallbladder and the pancreas. Gall bladder Stomach Bile Acid chymo Intestinal iuice flfisxolfp Pancreatic juice . e d: be“ waft : Duodenum of o“ c0 small Intestine Woman-adorns mMuknnmm. Pancreas The liver and the gallbladder produce bile. The pancreas produces trypsin (protease), lipase, amylase and bicarbonate. RDULnd WVSCJBS , Hos H: c0 Mouth b) Cmdm -sivomch emancc g Pxélo‘ric - shamadq an} A) anus As digestion progresses in the small intestine, small food molecules are absorbed. The inner wall of the small intestine is lined with thousands of finger- like projections called Villi increase the absorption area of the small intestine. Each villus contains a cam/lam bed and a Iacteal. Lacteals are small vessels from the lymphatic system. Lacteals absorb fatty acids; amino acids and glucose go to the capillary bed and from there to the cells. -2111' l i fifi’xfiifii'j7@1"i&‘ 1‘! xiv-‘6 3 a! .F- 1‘35 bi :5 . .0! i ,"il’i r2 r1 “I. l ‘ I': a} ‘ I .3 a; x."- i" X5535 :4 r» ‘2" 2"}. L: I": +11 :‘e’i -* H ’«F- ' . a! I. v , d .. t, _. . .’ '1 ,1 . _ . " ti \=\J\§'5l'fi.i:f;l§1 f ...£ {ifi I: I ‘3’ '~.-- if! ,‘ ii Lil ' ’,-' '.~‘ 3 . ‘1 l ital in, V g 3: L- 5 it t ' ‘Q‘QQ‘ 6:99;.“ “391.35%? 6'0 ‘ & 3dy'“' ‘ . '. "“ "“ ' A i 4:3. ~.r'- O " "~ v-v.‘ %' § Connectivenssue ‘ II _. .ar'wnlral". :n'd’..-hha,.~1.. ' m"! an...“ crIUIrlul wikr< \liam Illr mum) hunk“ “mun: «mu: r-Nr .— ly-vpuln lalralx _ (‘qulhry «15m The process of bringing the food molecules to the cells and their use bay the cells is called assimilation. The large intestine. Absorption happens in the small intestine. What remains unabsorbed (indigested) goes to the large intestine. Water is absorbed in the large intestine. The primary function of the large intestine is water absorption. Bacteria such as Escherichia coli live in the large intestine. In a mutualistic relationship, we provide nutrients, water and a warm environment to intestinal bacteria and they synthesize vitamin K and maintain a healthy environment in the large intestine. Food undigested by us or the intestinal bacteria is eliminated as feces. _ _ . , fix ‘ hHPII/wdf’os. howswgwovks .(om /h$w /3a’3'q H’e‘d’ashVe 5554?")‘0‘ fies (m vid€o . Hwy—1 -smo\\ (mesfiqe absobe 530d moie(u(a -tomae mwsimc obso‘rbS wdtf’r motemles ’tbr oli‘ahrea <> tavge inmfinc dW’s hot ubSmb me H10 [)9ng Wave +1»:th in Hwet'oad- ...
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2w004 - TOPIC 6. HUMAN HEALTH AND PHYSIOLOGY SUMMARY 6.1.1....

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