Midterm Review Guide

Midterm Review Guide - History Class Notes The Known World...

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History Class Notes The Known World 1. The Native Life 2. Life in Europe Before Columbus 3. Spain and the New World 4. New France North and South America were last continents to be found Most North Americans are descendants from just a few first arrivals that migrated from glacial areas who were -Nomadic -Traveled light -Went through eating binges and long times of hunger How people traveled to these areas: -15,000 years ago: across land bridge created by Ice Age, dispersed across NA from there (mostly from Siberia) -10,000 years ago: by boat, trekked to the Southwest. Ancestors of Apache and Navajo. Some settled in Alaska -5,000 years ago: by boat, settled in Alaska and Canada. Ancestors of Inuites and Eskimos -Native people arrived at different areas according to vegetation. -Native people lived in many different ways 3 Main regions of people: South, Southwest, and Northeast: Total people 9,000,000 In 1492: North American people were so diverse -375 different languages -Would trade with each other over extremely large distances - The way we can tell: there is copper in the coast where it doesn’t belong and marine shells in areas they don’t belong (archeologists have found) Region 1: Southwest Region -Dry heat: Navajo and apache -Had to stay close to water: rivers, river basins -They could do limited farming/ have villages Region 2: South -Southern Appalachia -Short winters/ long summers -Mild/ moist climate -Weren’t tied to water sources: except to fish
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-Could farm and hunt Region 3: North East -Iroquois league -Extensive farming -Hilltops: women farmed squash and beans -Had longhouses which protected them in warfare 1492 Native Americans had all different custom, languages and ways of surviving -Indians quickly learned that Europeans were very diverse too 1480’s and before - Europe maritime technologies were created to dominate oceans - Before 1942, Europe was not as advanced as Turkey/ China and showed little interest in science and technology - Felt their God (catholic) would fill their knowledge with everything they needed to know -people like Galileo were seen as religious heretics - Most wealth was in Catholic church which owned a lot of land too - Many people had a really hard life - Massive social inequalities - One in 3 children died of disease before they turned five - Only half the population lived to be adults Political Power - Before 1450, most of the European kings were powerless t do anything about these social problems - Very little strong central government - Kings and government were weak because they didn’t really have money because they had a hard time communicating with the people n mass levels and at the time it was more prestigious to be a religious leader and kings had to adhere and be complacent with the noble people/ feudal lords - They also didn’t have much land and got most money from taxes but most of the population was too poor to pay taxes - People were also trading very little - It was only as European merchants started trading that kings could gather tax revenue and pay for armies and fund a bureaucracy The rise of commercial trade was the precondition for European expansion.
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