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Review Guide - Final Exam

Review Guide - Final Exam - Socy230 Andrews Review Guide...

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Socy230 Andrews Review Guide for Final Exam Chapter 6: Socialization Over the Life Course Key Concepts Socialization: Socialization refers to the ways in which individuals attempt to align their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior to fit into societies or groups. It is the process in which individuals incorporate society into the senses of self and this also occurs in-group contexts. Looking-glass self: Charles Cooley: The role of the other provides a sort of mirror reflection of our self. The looking-glass self provides cues to how our behavior is evaluated by others. We look to others’ reactions and adjusting behavior to give off favorable responses. Historical Context: The first theme in the life course examines how historical conditions may effect our socialization. Historical context refers to how historic events affect development for people in different birth cohorts, a group of people born within the same time period. People from different cohorts experience different life events at crucial moments of their lives. Middle friendship circles: Recent research and theory has started to examine how children actively participate in the socialization process. Adler and Adler (1998) conducted and extensive study of elementary children to understand children’s hierarchies, showing that children form into friendship cliques where they spend most of their time. Middle friendship groups comprise of about 50% of the student population. They are less hierarchical than the popular clique and have little to no aspirations for popularity. Agents of Socialization: Sociologists generally view agents of socialization as mediators of the larger society. For example: family’s may affect child development directly through their parenting techniques, for instance, but those techniques often reflect larger cultural patterns. Three primary agents of socialization include: families, schools, and peers. Linked Lives: The third theme in life course sociology emphasizes the importance of other people in our lives. Linked lives refer to our relationships with other people. Linked lives have implications for access to varying amounts of resources with which to cope with life events and changing the way we react to them. Popular clique: Recent research and theory has started to examine how children actively participate in the socialization process. Adler and Adler conducted an extensive study of elementary children to understand children’s hierarchies, showing that children form friendship cliques where they spend more of their time. The popular clique has the most control over youth (example: defining what is “cool” or not and what is desirable). They derive 1
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Socy230 Andrews their power from the act of exclusion (example: entry into the social group) and the ability to dominate social definitions.
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