AnthofLAlecture1 - b Chiefdom Foci • Mesoamerica •...

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BEFORE THE EUROPEANS JAN 20 1) Cultural, Social, and Political Variability Prior to Conquest (Language as index of this variability) 2) Political and Economic Organization BAND →TRIBE → CHIEFDOM →STATES →EMPIRES Increasing -------------------------------------- > a) Power/prestige of Leaders (coercion; standing armies) b) Size (larger populations; higher densities) c) Territory (far flung territories) d) Surpluses (intensification of production) e) Inequality (emergence of social classes/stratification) f) Craft specialization/luxury goods g) Bureaucracy h) Presence of monumental architecture 3) States a) Andes: Chimú and Moche (Peruvian coast) b) Central Mexico: Tlaxcala 4) Empires: Aztecs and Incas 5) Chiefdoms (“reinos”) a) Why talk about them? • Understanding rise of states • Many groups their “descendants”
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Unformatted text preview: b) Chiefdom Foci • Mesoamerica • Central America • Caribbean • Northern South America • Andes (especially in Peruvian coasts, the Altiplano, and Ecuador, near Colombia) • Amazonia/Amazon basin (especially near the Orinoco / Amazon floodplains [várzea]) c) Chiefdoms in Northern South America (“Chibcha” region): • Why are they important? a) High concentration b) Many one step away from states • Two Examples: a) Tairona b) Muisca What were they like at the Conquest? 1) Evidence of social hierarchy 2) Differential distribution of goods 3) Surplus agricultural production 4) Rising population (demography) 5) Economic system based on redistribution (system of exchange) 6) Presence of conflict/warfare 7) Chiefs engaged in prestige competition...
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AnthofLAlecture1 - b Chiefdom Foci • Mesoamerica •...

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